Summary of Egg (Chicken)
TL;DR - contains multiple supplements
Eggs are the vessel for offspring for various species. Chicken eggs in particular are widely used for human nutrition.
The Egg is divided into a yellow-orange nutrient sac known as the 'Yolk' and the proteinaceous albumin known as the 'White'. The Yolk tends to be the source of most dietary fat and is designed to feed the fetus (if it were present), and the whites the source of most dietary protein and are designed to both supply the yolk with nutrition and to protect the yolk either physically or enzymatically.
Some nutrients or non-nutritive components are placed ubiquitously across the egg, while others are isolated to either the yolk or the white.
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Scientific Research on Egg (Chicken)
The Yolk contains:
Apovitellinin-I, vitellogenin-1,2 and 3, and apolipoprotein B.
May contain different scented and tasting molecules dependent on feed
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)
The bioactive peptide YPEP, which has bone-protective properties.
The White contains:
A wide variety of proteins (78 analyzed with high confidence, 148 overall confirmed, 202 possible) that have (mostly) non-nutritive implications.
Ovalbumin, Ovotransferrin, and Ovomucoid (collectively 75% of total protein content)
Biotin-binding protein Avidin
Riboflavin and Biotin
Additionally, the shell contains:
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- Hodzic A, et al. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens. Pol J Vet Sci. (2008)
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- Rychlik M. Pantothenic acid quantification by a stable isotope dilution assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analyst. (2003)
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- Yoon J, et al. Antimicrobial activity of the cell organelles, lysosomes isolated from egg white. J Microbiol Biotechnol. (2009)
- White HB 3rd, et al. Biotin-binding protein from chicken egg yolk. Assay and relationship to egg-white avidin. Biochem J. (1976)
- Cordeiro CM, Hincke MT. Recent patents on eggshell: shell and membrane applications. Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric. (2011)
- Mann K, Macek B, Olsen JV. Proteomic analysis of the acid-soluble organic matrix of the chicken calcified eggshell layer. Proteomics. (2006)
- Determination of insoluble avian eggshell matrix proteins.
- Nakano T, Ikawa NI, Ozimek L. Chemical composition of chicken eggshell and shell membranes. Poult Sci. (2003)
- Ha YW, et al. Relationship between eggshell strength and keratan sulfate of eggshell membranes. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. (2007)