Can diabetes and blood sugar change over time?

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    Blood glucose levels increase after eating and return to baseline within a few hours. The amount by which blood glucose rises after eating is largely determined by meal composition, prior physical activity, and the time of day because glucose tolerance (i.e., how well the body resists spikes in blood glucose after eating) peaks in the morning and declines in the afternoon and evening.[1] Glucose tolerance also tends to decline with age.[2]

    Lifestyle changes can lead to a remission of type 2 diabetes. Following specific diets (e.g., low-carb, vegan, fasting) probably isn’t that important, so long as the chosen eating plan facilitates a sustained, moderate calorie deficit that results in weight loss (sometimes as little as 5%–10% of original body weight) and a reduction in intra-organ fat.[3][4][5] In fact, given that weight loss and maintenance is so challenging, people who are seeking to improve their type 2 diabetes with weight loss should simply focus on dietary patterns that are realistic, sustainable, and as mentally and emotionally healthy as possible. Even if weight loss isn’t attainable, physical activity alone can improve some key measures of type 2 diabetes, such as HbA1c.[6] That said, these benefits are still most pronounced when there’s a simultaneous increase in physical activity and decrease in body weight.[7]

    References

    1. ^Poggiogalle E, Jamshed H, Peterson CMCircadian regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism in humansMetabolism.(2018 Jul)
    2. ^Chia CW, Egan JM, Ferrucci LAge-Related Changes in Glucose Metabolism, Hyperglycemia, and Cardiovascular Risk.Circ Res.(2018-09-14)
    3. ^Roy Taylor, Ambady Ramachandran, William S Yancy Jr, Nita G ForouhiNutritional basis of type 2 diabetes remissionBMJ.(2021 Jul 7)
    4. ^Siram AT, Yanagisawa R, Skamagas MWeight management in type 2 diabetes mellitus.Mt Sinai J Med.(2010)
    5. ^National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity.Dieting and the development of eating disorders in overweight and obese adultsArch Intern Med.(2000 Sep 25)
    6. ^Boulé NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJEffects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trialsJAMA.(2001 Sep 12)
    7. ^Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Boulé NG, Wells GA, Prud'homme D, Fortier M, Reid RD, Tulloch H, Coyle D, Phillips P, Jennings A, Jaffey JEffects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.Ann Intern Med.(2007-Sep-18)