Who is most at risk for diabetes?

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    The main cause of type 2 diabetes is excess fat accumulation in the liver and pancreas, which leads to insulin resistance and inadequate insulin production.[1] Consequently, people with overweight or obesity are at an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, especially if they have an upper body and visceral fat storage pattern.[2]

    Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes, is ultimately an autoimmune disease, though it is often heritable and influenced by multiple genes,[3] with the highest incidences reported in Finland and other Northern European nations.[4] Environmental triggers, such as exposure to certain viruses (e.g., enterovirus) and nutritional factors, may also increase the risk of type 1 diabetes.[5] The reason why some people develop type 1 diabetes is not fully known, but the evidence is at least clear that it is caused by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells, often after a viral infection.

    References

    1. ^Taylor R, Al-Mrabeh A, Sattar NUnderstanding the mechanisms of reversal of type 2 diabetes.Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol.(2019-09)
    2. ^Klein S, Gastaldelli A, Yki-Järvinen H, Scherer PEWhy does obesity cause diabetes?Cell Metab.(2022-01-04)
    3. ^DiMeglio LA, Evans-Molina C, Oram RAType 1 diabetes.Lancet.(2018-06-16)
    4. ^Lucier J, Weinstock RSDiabetes Mellitus Type 1StatPearls.(2022-05)
    5. ^Ilonen J, Lempainen J, Veijola RThe heterogeneous pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.Nat Rev Endocrinol.(2019-11)