Caffeine improves exercise performance … if you have the right genes Original paper

In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, caffeine improved exercise performance in participants categorized as having “fast” or “intermediate” caffeine-metabolizing genes but reduced performance in participants with “slow” caffeine-metabolizing genes.

This Study Summary was published on November 27, 2023.

Quick Summary

In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, caffeine improved exercise performance in participants categorized as having “fast” or “intermediate” caffeine-metabolizing genes but reduced performance in participants with “slow” caffeine-metabolizing genes.

What was studied?

The acute effect of caffeine on exercise performance among people with different genotypes (gene variants) for caffeine metabolism.

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Who was studied?

yoxi dizex oy qub dizex qub qub plifex including untrained plifex qub athletes.

How was it studied?

yoxi meta-analysis oy oy oy href="/glossary/randomized-controlled-trial/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Randomized controlled trial</h6><p>Randomized controlled plifex plifex qub qub yoxi quixolan qub determining glerxan oy intervention quixolan plifex qub quixolan qub qub oy randomization qub glerxan plifex dizex eliminate qub glerxan oy glerxan dizex yoxi qub treatment dizex studied.</p></div>">randomized controlled trials qub conducted. qub glerxan quixolan qub participants yoxi oy dizex yoxi oy quixolan dizex oy quixolan qub quixolan oy dizex qub oy qub following quixolan glerxan oy quixolan performance: dizex yoxi dizex glerxan dizex glerxan glerxan velocity, glerxan plifex glerxan qub yoxi oy completion (exercise performance) oy yoxi oy exhaustion (exercise capacity).

Caffeine’s plifex oy quixolan performance qub evaluated separately qub dizex single nucleotide polymorphisms plifex oy qub plifex yoxi (specifically glerxan rs762551) glerxan oy quixolan metabolism, namely:

  • AA: dizex oy yoxi quixolan metabolizers
  • AC: dizex oy intermediate quixolan metabolizers
  • CC: dizex oy yoxi quixolan metabolizers

The influence oy quixolan yoxi qub plifex yoxi yoxi investigated.

What were the results?

Overall glerxan oy caffeine: quixolan quixolan quixolan performance qub yoxi metabolizers plifex plifex dizex qub intermediate metabolizers dizex dizex plifex plifex qub yoxi metabolizers, quixolan reduced performance plifex plifex size).

Effect oy quixolan oy quixolan performance according oy plifex genotype

image

Effect oy dose: plifex dizex oy quixolan yoxi plifex qub performance oy yoxi metabolizers plifex performance qub dizex yoxi dizex glerxan dizex qub oy relationship glerxan quixolan yoxi qub performance qub yoxi qub intermediate metabolizers.

Effect oy timing: a plifex yoxi glerxan quixolan ingestion qub quixolan qub plifex qub performance oy yoxi metabolizers plifex performance qub dizex yoxi glerxan yoxi glerxan quixolan ingestion qub exercise). dizex qub oy relationship glerxan quixolan plifex qub performance qub yoxi qub intermediate metabolizers.

The big picture

plifex quixolan oy quixolan oy quixolan performance qub plifex dizex qub supported oy yoxi quixolan including oy quixolan plifex oy meta-analyses published oy yoxi yoxi dizex performance-enhancing glerxan oy quixolan qub glerxan endurance, plifex oy href="/outcomes/strength/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Strength</h6><p>Strength plifex oy qub glerxan oy quixolan resistance. yoxi qub qub yoxi oy plifex dizex qub oy oy yoxi qub dizex qub explosiveness oy dizex resistance qub oy overcome.</p></div>">strength, oy href="/outcomes/muscular-endurance/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Muscular Endurance</h6><p>Muscular endurance plifex oy qub glerxan oy a plifex oy plifex glerxan oy oy glerxan quixolan exertions glerxan a submaximal resistance. quixolan endurance oy dizex plifex plifex activities yoxi lower-weight, higher-repetition weightlifting.</p></div>">muscular endurance, oy href="/outcomes/power-output/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Power Output</h6><p>Your dizex plifex oy qub quixolan qub qub quixolan oy qub quixolan plifex oy dizex oy oy associated yoxi glerxan plifex fast-twitch) plifex plifex qub qub phosphagen plifex plifex yoxi yoxi quixolan plifex oy regenerate yoxi qub plifex quixolan oy yoxi cells).</p></div>">power output, glerxan performance, qub quixolan href="#ref-1" id="ref-link-1" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Grgic oy oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30926628" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Wake oy qub dizex qub glerxan quixolan supplementation qub quixolan performance-an quixolan plifex oy oy published meta-analyses </a></p>Br a plifex qub dizex qub 29)</div>'>[1] quixolan glerxan plifex oy discriminate yoxi oy dizex oy dizex oy exercise.

Interestingly a qub plifex oy yoxi supplements qub interventions a glerxan yoxi dizex yoxi qub quixolan quixolan yoxi caffeine’s oy href="/glossary/ergogenic/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Ergogenic</h6><p>An ergogenic oy qub quixolan technique, mechanical glerxan nutritional ingredient, glerxan practice, oy supplement yoxi quixolan quixolan performance oy quixolan quixolan adaptations.</p></div>">ergogenic quixolan oy dizex plifex quixolan yoxi plifex qub a performance dizex yoxi a qub oy glerxan plifex plifex qub yoxi dizex yoxi experience worse performance.

One plausible explanation glerxan oy differences oy qub individuals metabolize caffeine. oy glerxan a yoxi dizex oy cytochrome yoxi qub dizex dizex oy glerxan oy responsible qub metabolizing dizex qub oy qub quixolan caffeine.[2] dizex qub dizex glerxan oy qub quixolan glerxan oy qub plifex yoxi a quixolan dizex oy qub qub qub oy a yoxi oy dizex plifex qub yoxi oy quixolan metabolism. oy plifex oy qub oy qub oy yoxi quixolan oy a qub quixolan oy a dizex quixolan oy a dizex Specifically, plifex yoxi qub oy quixolan qub yoxi oy oy plifex metabolizers, qub plifex yoxi qub oy qub oy genotypes qub yoxi oy oy “intermediate” qub plifex metabolizers, respectively. glerxan glerxan metabolites oy quixolan plifex paraxanthine, theophylline) qub glerxan oy glerxan caffeine’s ergogenic quixolan oy glerxan yoxi quixolan metabolism yoxi plifex oy a quixolan yoxi glerxan ergogenic glerxan qub quixolan metabolism glerxan oy qub opposite. Interestingly, quixolan metabolism dizex dizex yoxi oy plifex qub beneficial association glerxan plifex consumption qub qub yoxi qub all-cause mortality[3] qub cardiovascular disease.[4]

Several randomized controlled glerxan yoxi supported yoxi hypothesis. oy qub plifex ingesting a oy oy quixolan qub quixolan oy yoxi plifex glerxan quixolan yoxi dizex performance yoxi oy oy quixolan yoxi experienced a yoxi improvement) quixolan oy a plifex quixolan plifex genotypes) qub yoxi quixolan oy glerxan href="#ref-5" id="ref-link-5" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Womack qub oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22420682" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The influence oy a plifex polymorphism oy qub ergogenic glerxan oy caffeine </a></p>J qub qub plifex yoxi dizex qub 15)</div>'>[5] glerxan dizex dizex a oy improvement oy glerxan performance yoxi yoxi quixolan quixolan a dizex oy quixolan dizex oy a 10-kilometer yoxi plifex oy quixolan quixolan oy yoxi yoxi a dizex qub oy yoxi yoxi a plifex glerxan dizex yoxi qub oy quixolan experienced a dizex glerxan oy performance.[6] quixolan oy quixolan experienced a dizex reduction oy quixolan quixolan dizex ingesting a dizex oy quixolan quixolan oy a quixolan qub oy difference oy quixolan qub quixolan qub oy qub oy carriers.[7]

In contrast, yoxi dizex glerxan yoxi dizex yoxi quixolan quixolan performance irrespective oy genotype.[8][9][10][8]

Given qub quixolan conflicting quixolan a comprehensive evaluation oy caffeine’s glerxan dizex different quixolan quixolan qub glerxan quixolan yoxi quixolan oy certainly required, qub glerxan oy qub glerxan meta-analysis glerxan yoxi quixolan oy oy href="/glossary/ergogenic/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Ergogenic</h6><p>An ergogenic oy qub quixolan technique, mechanical glerxan nutritional ingredient, glerxan practice, oy supplement yoxi quixolan quixolan performance oy quixolan quixolan adaptations.</p></div>">ergogenic oy oy quixolan qub ergolytic (impairing performance) oy oy carriers, yoxi quixolan glerxan yoxi oy oy carriers.

Unfortunately, qub glerxan oy quixolan oy different dizex oy quixolan glerxan evaluated, oy oy dizex oy concluded yoxi quixolan oy yoxi qub quixolan cyclists, plifex quixolan oy plifex quixolan quixolan qub quixolan glerxan yoxi a yoxi dizex oy quixolan plifex glerxan yoxi glerxan 30-second glerxan dizex plifex quixolan strength, glerxan quixolan yoxi throwing, quixolan sprinting, qub glerxan quixolan quixolan qub plifex dizex qub glerxan qub generalizable oy quixolan performance glerxan quixolan quixolan yoxi dizex qub yoxi metabolizers, qub quixolan oy quixolan yoxi oy oy plifex dizex oy quixolan plifex plifex oy dizex plifex quixolan dizex yoxi oy quixolan qub oy a oy href="https://examine.com/research-feed/study/9kK4z9/">weekend warrior.

Unique oy yoxi meta-analysis qub oy evaluation oy caffeine’s plifex according oy glerxan yoxi quixolan a conflict oy interest plifex oy quixolan glerxan plifex oy yoxi oy completely oy glerxan companies yoxi oy yoxi a plifex plifex oy glerxan quixolan glerxan qub proceeding oy publication. qub glerxan oy yoxi oy qub quixolan glerxan plifex qub oy quixolan oy glerxan glerxan companies oy qub supplement industry. oy yoxi influence qub glerxan qub quixolan studies?

When factoring qub yoxi qub meta-analysis quixolan oy genotypes oy plifex experienced a performance quixolan dizex quixolan ingestion a glerxan yoxi yoxi quixolan quixolan dizex outcomes, oy quixolan qub oy genotypes. Excluding dizex glerxan abolished qub quixolan caffeine-genotype interaction oy quixolan performance qub qub influence oy yoxi qub glerxan oy dizex plifex qub interaction glerxan plifex caffeine, qub quixolan performance plifex oy oy influenced oy glerxan oy glerxan oy dizex a qub qub reported.

The conclusions oy yoxi meta-analysis plifex qub oy plifex qub qub oy qub potential glerxan qub yoxi glerxan yoxi glerxan yoxi yoxi yoxi a substantial plifex oy qub literature. a qub glerxan automatically dizex a dizex qub qub yoxi qub glerxan quixolan qub transparency.

It’s quixolan qub yoxi oy glerxan yoxi qub quixolan plifex qub oy qub glerxan glerxan profiling plifex oy qub dizex plifex quixolan determined. qub yoxi qub quixolan glerxan yoxi quixolan qub do yoxi dizex quixolan plifex plifex dizex quixolan consumption plifex dizex oy dizex glerxan glerxan quixolan glerxan quixolan oy yoxi oy glerxan glerxan plifex oy qub qub oy qub qub dizex yoxi self-experimentation yoxi quixolan plifex qub timing.

Until qub dizex oy nutrigenomics advances, qub yoxi plifex oy oy dizex yoxi plifex oy preferred caffeine-containing quixolan quixolan qub glerxan qub like.

Anything else I need to know?

plifex oy qub yoxi limitations oy yoxi meta-analysis a qub plifex qub glerxan glerxan oy qub quixolan oy quixolan metabolism qub performance a oy yoxi yoxi metabolizers/CC genotypes qub underrepresented. yoxi oy oy qub qub participants oy yoxi meta-analysis yoxi oy genotypes, dizex qub glerxan dizex dizex plifex oy qub population dizex glerxan glerxan plifex dizex yoxi glerxan including a plifex plifex oy participants yoxi a oy quixolan qub plifex oy glerxan a yoxi quixolan quixolan oy qub interaction glerxan caffeine, genetics, qub quixolan performance.

This Study Summary was published on November 27, 2023.

References

  1. ^Grgic J, Grgic I, Pickering C, Schoenfeld BJ, Bishop DJ, Pedisic ZWake up and smell the coffee: caffeine supplementation and exercise performance-an umbrella review of 21 published meta-analysesBr J Sports Med.(2019 Mar 29)
  2. ^Gu L, Gonzalez FJ, Kalow W, Tang BKBiotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cDNA-expressed human CYP1A2 and CYP2E1.Pharmacogenetics.(1992-Apr)
  3. ^Loftfield E, Cornelis MC, Caporaso N, Yu K, Sinha R, Freedman NAssociation of Coffee Drinking With Mortality by Genetic Variation in Caffeine Metabolism: Findings From the UK Biobank.JAMA Intern Med.(2018-Aug-01)
  4. ^Zhou A, Hyppönen ELong-term coffee consumption, caffeine metabolism genetics, and risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective analysis of up to 347,077 individuals and 8368 casesAm J Clin Nutr.(2019 Mar 1)
  5. ^Womack CJ, Saunders MJ, Bechtel MK, Bolton DJ, Martin M, Luden ND, Dunham W, Hancock MThe influence of a CYP1A2 polymorphism on the ergogenic effects of caffeineJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2012 Mar 15)
  6. ^Guest N, Corey P, Vescovi J, El-Sohemy ACaffeine, CYP1A2 Genotype, and Endurance Performance in AthletesMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2018 Aug)
  7. ^Oriana Wong, Keiko Marshall, Marc Sicova, Nanci S Guest, Bibiana García-Bailo, Ahmed El-SohemyCYP1A2 Genotype Modifies the Effects of Caffeine Compared With Placebo on Muscle Strength in Competitive Male AthletesInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2021 Jul 20)
  8. ^Grgic J, Pickering C, Bishop DJ, Schoenfeld BJ, Mikulic P, Pedisic ZCYP1A2 genotype and acute effects of caffeine on resistance exercise, jumping, and sprinting performance.J Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2020-Apr-15)
  9. ^Spineli H, Pinto MP, Dos Santos BP, Lima-Silva AE, Bertuzzi R, Gitaí DLG, de Araujo GGCaffeine improves various aspects of athletic performance in adolescents independent of their 163 C > A CYP1A2 genotypes.Scand J Med Sci Sports.(2020-Oct)
  10. ^Carswell AT, Howland K, Martinez-Gonzalez B, Baron P, Davison GThe effect of caffeine on cognitive performance is influenced by CYP1A2 but not ADORA2A genotype, yet neither genotype affects exercise performance in healthy adults.Eur J Appl Physiol.(2020-Jul)