African Mango

Last Updated: July 22, 2023

African mango supplements are derived from the seeds of the African mango fruit that grows on the Irvingia gabonensis tree. They are reported to cause weight loss but there is currently only low-quality evidence to support this claim.

African Mango is most often used for

What is African mango?

African mango, also known as bush mango, is an edible fruit that grows on the Irvingia gabonensis tree, which is native to tropical Africa.[1] The fruit is sweet and juicy and provides ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C).[2][3] African mango seeds, sometimes called “dika nuts”, are high in fatty acids and other nutrients, like polyphenols and iron.[1][4][5][6] The seeds can be eaten raw or roasted, and are used to make oil, gum, and thickening agents used in cooking.[1][7][8] The seeds or their extracts are sold as dietary supplements under the name “African mango”. African mango is unrelated to mango fruit sold in U.S. grocery stores, which are typically from India or Southeast Asia.

What are the main benefits of African mango?

African mango supplements are claimed to cause weight loss and improve aspects of metabolic syndrome by affecting total cholesterol, LDL-C, and blood glucose.[9][10][11] While systematic reviews conclude that African mango supplements might cause these beneficial effects,[12][13] these reviews also conclude that the evidence has a high risk of bias because of poor reporting quality and serious methodological problems. including unclear randomization and blinding protocols, and the inclusion of lifestyle modifications in addition to supplementation.[12][13] Therefore, high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether African mango supplements are useful for weight loss or the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

Other evidence shows that Irvingia gabonensis extracts can reduce organ toxicity caused by certain drugs used to treat cancer, such as doxorubicin and trastuzumab.[14][15] However, these effects have only been shown in rodent experiments and require verification in humans.

What are the main drawbacks of African mango?

Some randomized controlled trials report headaches, sleep problems, and flatulence in people receiving African mango supplements.[12][13] However, similar symptoms are also reported by people randomized to receive placebo,[12][13] so African mango supplements are unlikely a direct cause of these side effects.

There is one reported case of renal failure associated with African mango consumption in a person with chronic kidney disease,[16] but causality cannot be certain. Rodent experiments do not find evidence of toxicity caused by extracts of African mango seeds.[17] However, there are currently no pharmacological or toxicology studies that have involved humans. Such studies are needed to fully understand the safety of African mango supplements.

How does African mango work?

Some evidence shows that African mango extracts may reduce cell growth and change the expression of leptin in fat cells (adipocytes). Leptin is a hormone involved in appetite and energy balance.[18] This might explain the potential role of African mango supplements in weight loss.[10] Other evidence shows that a specific extract from African mango seeds, called terminalin, may increase glucose uptake into muscle cells,[19] possibly explaining how African mango supplements reduced blood glucose in some studies.[10][11] However, these potential mechanisms are derived from cell culture experiments (i.e., in vitro) and require verification in humans. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether African mango supplements indeed cause weight loss or improve blood glucose.[12][13]

It bears repeating that due to the low quality of evidence,[12][13] high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of African mango.

What are other names for African Mango?
Note that African Mango is also known as:
  • African Wild Mango
  • African Mango Extract
  • African Bush Mango
  • Dika Nut
  • Irvingia Gabonensis
Dosage information

Supplemental dosages of irvingia gabonensis are quite variable, being anywhere between 150-3,200mg taken daily alongside meals. The optimal or effective dose is not currently known, but since the dietary fiber may be the active ingredient then supplementing in the higher end of the aforementioned range may be prudent.

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🚧 Under Renovation 🚧

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  1. ^Mateus-Reguengo L, Barbosa-Pereira L, Rembangouet W, Bertolino M, Giordano M, Rojo-Poveda O, Zeppa GFood applications of (Aubry-Lecomte ex. O'Rorke) Baill., the 'bush mango': A review.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2020)
  2. ^Joseph K et al.Composition, sensory quality and respiration during ripening and storage of edible wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis)Int J Food Sci Tech.(1991 Jun)
  3. ^Ayivor JE et al.Evaluation of Elemental Contents of Wild Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Fruit in Ghana.Adv J Food Sci Tech.(2011 Sep)
  4. ^Sun J, Chen PUltra high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, extract, and related dietary supplements.J Agric Food Chem.(2012-Sep-05)
  5. ^Zoué LT, Bédikou ME, Faulet BM, Gonnety JT, Niamké SLCharacterisation of a highly saturated Irvingia gabonensis seed kernel oil with unusual linolenic acid content.Food Sci Technol Int.(2013-Feb)
  6. ^Giami et al.Chemical composition and functional properties of raw, heat-treated and partially proteolysed wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seed flour.Food Chem.(1994)
  7. ^Ogaji IJ, Nan A, Hoag SWA Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds.J Young Pharm.(2012-Apr)
  8. ^Ndjouenkeu R, Akingbala JO, Oguntimein GBEmulsifying properties of three African food hydrocolloids: okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis), and khan (Belschmiedia sp.).Plant Foods Hum Nutr.(1997)
  9. ^Ross SMAfrican mango (IGOB131): a proprietary seed extract of Irvingia gabonensis is found to be effective in reducing body weight and improving metabolic parameters in overweight humans.Holist Nurs Pract.(2011)
  10. ^Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, Mbofung CM, Oben JEIGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigationLipids Health Dis.(2009 Mar 2)
  11. ^Méndez-Del Villar M, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, Pérez-Rubio KG, Cortez-Navarrete MEffect of Irvingia gabonensis on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion.J Med Food.(2018-Jun)
  12. ^Lee J, Chung M, Fu Z, Choi J, Lee HJThe Effects of Seed Extract Supplementation on Anthropometric and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.J Am Coll Nutr.(2020-Jul)
  13. ^Igho Onakpoya, Lucy Davies, Paul Posadzki, Edzard ErnstThe efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis supplementation in the management of overweight and obesity: a systematic review of randomized controlled trialsJ Diet Suppl.(2013 Mar)
  14. ^Olorundare O, Adeneye A, Akinsola A, Soyemi S, Mgbehoma A, Okoye I, Ntambi JM, Mukhtar HAfrican Vegetables ( Leaf and Seed Extracts) Effectively Mitigate Trastuzumab-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats.Oxid Med Cell Longev.(2020)
  15. ^Olorundare O, Adeneye A, Akinsola A, Kolo P, Agede O, Soyemi S, Mgbehoma A, Okoye I, Albrecht R, Mukhtar HSeed Extract: An Effective Attenuator of Doxorubicin-Mediated Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats.Oxid Med Cell Longev.(2020)
  16. ^Özkan G, Ulusoy ŞA case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption.Int J Clin Exp Med.(2015)
  17. ^Kothari SC, Shivarudraiah P, Venkataramaiah SB, Gavara S, Soni MGSubchronic toxicity and mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies of Irvingia gabonensis extract (IGOB131).Food Chem Toxicol.(2012-May)
  18. ^Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum KInhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPARgamma and leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene.Lipids Health Dis.(2008-Nov-13)
  19. ^Yoon SY, Kim J, Lee BS, Baek SC, Chung SJ, Kim KHTerminalin from African Mango () Stimulates Glucose Uptake through Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases.Biomolecules.(2022-Feb-17)