Our evidence-based analysis features 18 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis by and verified by the Research Team. Last updated on Jun 28, 2017.

Summary of Glucagon

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

Scientific Information on Glucagon

Frequently Asked Questions

Questions and answers regarding Glucagon

Q: How do I increase insulin sensitivity?

A: Exercise frequently (resistance training and aerobic training are both beneficial), eat better (in this regard, less processed carbohydrates and more vegetables), and lose weight. Supplements can help, but are better when the diet and exercise are in order

Read full answer to "How do I increase insulin sensitivity?"

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect glucagon

Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
All comparative evidence is now gathered in our ​A-to-Z Supplement Reference.
The evidence for each separate supplement is still freely available ​here.
Fish Oil  
Cocoa Extract  
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)  

Scientific Support & Reference Citations

Via HEM and FAQ:

  1. Meshkani R, Adeli K. Hepatic insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease . Clin Biochem. (2009)
  2. Bastard JP, et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance . Eur Cytokine Netw. (2006)
  3. Cnop M, et al. Mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: many differences, few similarities . Diabetes. (2005)
  4. Akirav E, Kushner JA, Herold KC. Beta-cell mass and type 1 diabetes: going, going, gone . Diabetes. (2008)
  5. Stecenko AA, Moran A. Update on cystic fibrosis-related diabetes . Curr Opin Pulm Med. (2010)
  6. Short KR, et al. Impact of aerobic exercise training on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and muscle oxidative capacity . Diabetes. (2003)
  7. Karakelides H, et al. Age, obesity, and sex effects on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function . Diabetes. (2010)
  8. Finucane FM, et al. The effects of aerobic exercise on metabolic risk, insulin sensitivity and intrahepatic lipid in healthy older people from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study: a randomised controlled trial . Diabetologia. (2010)
  9. van der Heijden GJ, et al. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents . J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2009)
  10. Goulet ED, et al. Aerobic training improves insulin sensitivity 72-120 h after the last exercise session in younger but not in older women . Eur J Appl Physiol. (2005)
  11. Winnick JJ, et al. Short-term aerobic exercise training in obese humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus improves whole-body insulin sensitivity through gains in peripheral, not hepatic insulin sensitivity . J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  12. Krogh-Madsen R, et al. A 2-wk reduction of ambulatory activity attenuates peripheral insulin sensitivity . J Appl Physiol. (2010)
  13. Fisher G, Hunter GR, Gower BA. Aerobic exercise training conserves insulin sensitivity for 1 yr following weight loss in overweight women . J Appl Physiol. (2012)
  14. Nassis GP, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls . Metabolism. (2005)
  15. Carr DB, et al. A reduced-fat diet and aerobic exercise in Japanese Americans with impaired glucose tolerance decreases intra-abdominal fat and improves insulin sensitivity but not beta-cell function . Diabetes. (2005)
  16. van der Heijden GJ, et al. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents . Obesity (Silver Spring). (2010)
  17. Van Der Heijden GJ, et al. Strength exercise improves muscle mass and hepatic insulin sensitivity in obese youth . Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2010)
  18. Black LE, Swan PD, Alvar BA. Effects of intensity and volume on insulin sensitivity during acute bouts of resistance training . J Strength Cond Res. (2010)

Cite this page

"Glucagon,", published on 28 June 2017, last updated on 28 June 2017,