Apple Cider Vinegar
Apple cider vinegar may provide some health benefits when taken with meals, such as reducing glucose spikes and suppressing appetite. That being said, the magnitude of the benefits is unclear, and excessive vinegar consumption may damage the gastrointestinal tract.
Apple Cider Vinegar is most often used for
Apple cider vinegar is a vinegar made from apple juice. It contains the usual acetic acid content of vinegar and small amounts of various phytochemicals found in apples. It’s one of those widely beloved and yet widely scoffed-at word-of-mouth health remedies. Mix it with lemon juice and coconut oil, and you have the trifecta of popular home remedies (seems like a bad flavor combination though).
It seems to have a modest ability to reduces the glycemic index of foods, making it a possible tool for helping to manage blood sugar. More research is needed, and it’s unclear how its effects differ from any other type of vinegar, but the benefits are unlikely to differ a great deal since acetic acid may be the main driver of its benefits. Apple cider vinegar also seems to be mildly appetite-suppressing and may assist dieting, with a little research finding a spontaneous reduction in food intake and body fat.
Due to its acidic nature, it can damage various tissues and tooth enamel. Application to sensitive skin, excessive consumption (especially of undiluted vinegar), and excessive consumption of pickled foods may lead to damaged tissue. There is an association between pickled food and gastric cancer, and while it’s unclear what the connection might be, vinegar is a plausible explanation.
30 ml daily, spread out between meals.
One fairly well-conducted study noted weight loss with vinegar, but the mechanism of this effect is unclear.
Vinegar (Acetic Acid) does not influence the metabolic rate. Nevertheless, one human study suggests that it may help with fat loss. Although it doesn't have the largest body of evidence, it remains a very cheap and safe 'home remedy' to aid in fat loss.
One study conducted had obese subjects consume either 0, 15, or 30mL vinegar (0, 750mg, 1,500mg Acetic Acid; respectively) in a double blind manner (placebo had added lactate to match taste). Weight loss was noted in a dose-dependent manner, and increased throughout the duration of the study.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19661687|title=Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects|published=2009 Aug|authors=Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, Ugajin S, Kaga T|journal=Biosci Biotechnol Biochem] No difference in food intake was noted, and average weight loss in 12 weeks appeared to be 1.2 kg for the 15-mL group and 1.9 kg for the 30-mL group, with both groups regaining some weight 4 weeks after cessation. It was theorized that this was due to increased fat oxidation enzymes from AMPK.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19469536|title=Acetic acid upregulates the expression of genes for fatty acid oxidation enzymes in liver to suppress body fat accumulation|published=2009 Jul 8|authors=Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, Kaga T|journal=J Agric Food Chem][reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16630552|title=Acetic acid activates hepatic AMPK and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic KK-A(y) mice|published=2006 Jun 2|authors=Sakakibara S, Yamauchi T, Oshima Y, Tsukamoto Y, Kadowaki T|journal=Biochem Biophys Res Commun]
This appears to be the only well controlled study done on vinegar and weight loss in humans, and it is currently not known whether taking vinegar in isolation or with a meal is more effective.
Other Health effects
Vinegar appears to be effective at suppressing the speed at which glucose enters the blood, and with that lowers the peak glucose and insulin secretion. If measured acutely, there is a large (31.4%-40%) decrease in blood glucose levels,[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7796781|title=Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects|published=1995 Apr|authors=Brighenti F, Castellani G, Benini L, Casiraghi MC, Leopardi E, Crovetti R, Testolin G|journal=Eur J Clin Nutr][reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16034360|title=Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects|published=2005 Nov|authors=Leeman M, Ostman E, Björck I|journal=Eur J Clin Nutr] but after 120min the overall exposure is the same.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16015276|title=Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects|published=2005 Sep|authors=Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Björck I|journal=Eur J Clin Nutr] It is a slowing effect, not a reducing effect. That being said, this slowing may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity in diabetics.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14694010|title=Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes|published=2004 Jan|authors=Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ|journal=Diabetes Care]
This slowing may be due to vinegar (as apple cider vinegar) being able to slow gastric (stomach) emptying rates.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18093343|title=Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study|published=2007 Dec 20|authors=Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO|journal=BMC Gastroenterol] This has been shown with regular vinegar as well.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9630389|title=Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar|published=1998 May|authors=Liljeberg H, Björck I|journal=Eur J Clin Nutr]
Vinegar does not seem to interfere with actual carbohydrate absorption in any way.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19963157|title=Vinegar lacks antiglycemic action on enteral carbohydrate absorption in human subjects|published=2009 Dec|authors=Salbe AD, Johnston CS, Buyukbese MA, Tsitouras PD, Harman SM|journal=Nutr Res]
Lipids and Cholesterol
In diabetic rats, apple cider vinegar (6% food intake) was able to beneficially alter blood lipids[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19630216|title=Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats|published=2008 Dec 1|authors=Shishehbor F, Mansoori A, Sarkaki AR, Jalali MT, Latifi SM|journal=Pak J Biol Sci] independent of processing methods.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21561165|title=Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats|published=2011 Jun 22|authors=Budak NH, Kumbul Doguc D, Savas CM, Seydim AC, Kok Tas T, Ciris MI, Guzel-Seydim ZB|journal=J Agric Food Chem]
Note on supplementation
There have been reports of esophageal injury associated with apple cider vinegar tablets, although it is not sure if this is due to high acid concentration or due to product tampering.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15983536|title=Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products|published=2005 Jul|authors=Hill LL, Woodruff LH, Foote JC, Barreto-Alcoba M|journal=J Am Diet Assoc]
It may be best to use regular table vinegar, as that will get the job done.