Eggs is most often used for
Eggs are the vessel for offspring for various species. Chicken eggs in particular are widely used for human nutrition.
The Egg is divided into a yellow-orange nutrient sac known as the 'Yolk' and the proteinaceous albumin known as the 'White'. The Yolk tends to be the source of most dietary fat and is designed to feed the fetus (if it were present), and the whites the source of most dietary protein and are designed to both supply the yolk with nutrition and to protect the yolk either physically or enzymatically.
Some nutrients or non-nutritive components are placed ubiquitously across the egg, while others are isolated to either the yolk or the white.
Smart grocery shopping is increasingly important during the coronavirus pandemic. Here, we'll review the evidence on eight grocery items that are:
- Relatively inexpensive
- Filling and tasty
The coronavirus pandemic has changed everything, including grocery habits.
Salaries are lower, many jobs have been lost, and uncertainty is at a high. As a result, way more people are sensitive to food prices.
Potatoes: around 55 cents per large potato
Potatoes are sometimes villainized due to their being starchy and without color. But compared to white flour, with which they are sometimes lumped, they are way richer in micronutrients, and much more filling.
A study of 38 common foods found boiled potatoes to be the most satiating, calorie for calorie.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7498104|title=A satiety index of common foods|published=1995 Sep|authors=Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis E|journal=Eur J Clin Nutr|] Another study suggested that potatoes and beans provide a bigger “bang for your buck” (in micronutrients and fiber) than any other vegetable.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23691007|title=Vegetable cost metrics show that potatoes and beans provide most nutrients per penny|published=2013 May 15|authors=Drewnowski A, Rehm CD|journal=PLoS One|]
But why are white potatoes listed here, and not sweet potatoes?
First, white potatoes tend to be more available when supermarkets are running low on produce, as there are several varieties of white potato available and a multitude of frozen options.
Second, sweet potatoes may cause gut distress in people with digestive issues because they’re high in FODMAPs, specifically polyols.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27382323|title=Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date|published=2016 Jun 17|authors=Nanayakkara WS, Skidmore PM, O'Brien L, Wilkinson TJ, Gearry RB|journal=Clin Exp Gastroenterol|]
Lastly, while sweet potatoes are a good source of beta-carotene, and have been used for improving the vitamin A status of children in developing countries,[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15883432|title=Beta-carotene-rich orange-fleshed sweet potato improves the vitamin A status of primary school children assessed with the modified-relative-dose-response test|published=2005 May|authors=van Jaarsveld PJ, Faber M, Tanumihardjo SA, Nestel P, Lombard CJ, Benadé AJ|journal=Am J Clin Nutr|] conversion to the active form of vitamin A (called retinol) may be low, depending on your genetics, [reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23393141|title=Genetics and diet regulate vitamin A production via the homeobox transcription factor ISX|published=2013 Mar 29|authors=Lobo GP, Amengual J, Baus D, Shivdasani RA, Taylor D, von Lintig J|journal=J Biol Chem|][reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9706217|title=Bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids|published=1998|authors=Castenmiller JJ, West CE|journal=Annu Rev Nutr|] and decreases as you ingest more beta-carotene.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20237064|title=Beta-carotene conversion to vitamin A decreases as the dietary dose increases in humans|published=2010 May|authors=Novotny JA, Harrison DJ, Pawlosky R, Flanagan VP, Harrison EH, Kurilich AC|journal=J Nutr|]
White potatoes are among the most widely available foods, and they’re also cheap, versatile, and filling.
Lentils: around 11 cents per quarter cup dry
Bulk lentils are incredibly inexpensive. They’re also a staple protein source for vegans and vegetarians, and are culinarily flexible due to their mild flavor. They should not serve as your sole protein source, however, because they’re low in the essential amino acids methionine and cysteine.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28748078|title=Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses|published=2017 Jun 20|authors=Nosworthy MG, Neufeld J, Frohlich P, Young G, Malcolmson L, House JD|journal=Food Sci Nutr|]
The prebiotics and polyphenols in lentils may also benefit the health of your gut microbiome.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29125587|title=Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects|published=2017 Nov 10|authors=Ganesan K, Xu B|journal=Int J Mol Sci|] Be careful if you have gut issues, though, since high amounts of lentils may cause gut distress, unless they’re soaked and thoroughly cooked.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30614326|title=Soaking and cooking modify the alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide and dietary fibre content in five Mediterranean legumes|published=2019 Aug|authors=Njoumi S, Josephe Amiot M, Rochette I, Bellagha S, Mouquet-Rivier C|journal=Int J Food Sci Nutr|]
You can’t get much cheaper than bulk lentils, and they may help improve gut health — but they may also cause gut distress in people with sensitive tummies.
Carrots: around 15 cents per carrot
Carrots are a unique fridge item because of the many ways they can be used. They can be eaten raw as a quick snack, dipped into a variety of dips, or cooked in a few different ways.
One of the main advantages of carrots is that they’re dirt cheap. They provide a good ratio of nutrient density to cost.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23714199|title=New metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?|published=2013 Sep|authors=Drewnowski A|journal=J Acad Nutr Diet|]
Many people buy only baby carrots, which are snack size and already washed. But whole, unwashed carrots are much cheaper, so don’t ignore them. Carrots in general fill a unique niche: they’re widely available, don’t need cooking, and are filling and satisfying because of their high fiber content, crunch, and touch of sweetness.
Carrots are a good snack option: their fiber and water content promotes satiety, and they taste good to boot!
Frozen berries: around 67 cents per cup
Fresh berries are very expensive, with organic varieties being some of the most expensive types of produce you’ll see in supermarkets.
But frozen berries are much cheaper, they don’t run the risk of growing moldy like fresh berries, and they’re similarly rich in micronutrients. Frozen berries are often picked at their peak of freshness, and can be eaten in a variety of ways. They’re a mainstay of delicious smoothies, or they can be combined with oatmeal to make a crisp, or with yogurt to make for a quick and satisfying treat.
The health benefits of berries have been widely studied, with blueberry having the most research, including on neuroprotection and cardiometabolic health.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31329250|title=Recent Research on the Health Benefits of Blueberries and Their Anthocyanins|published=2020 Mar 1|authors=Kalt W, Cassidy A, Howard LR, Krikorian R, Stull AJ, Tremblay F, Zamora-Ros R|journal=Adv Nutr|] Other berries may be just as healthy, mind you, but they have much less research behind them. Less research doesn’t mean none, however; for example, trials on strawberries have shown benefits for atherosclertic risk.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20797478|title=Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome|published=2010 Jul|authors=Basu A, Fu DX, Wilkinson M, Simmons B, Wu M, Betts NM, Du M, Lyons TJ|journal=Nutr Res|]
Berries, especially blueberries, have a good amount of research for their health benefits. Fresh berries can be prohibitively expensive, but frozen berries are much cheaper and won’t go bad if you forget to eat them.
Frozen wild-caught salmon: a dollar seventy-five per quarter pound
Even though dozens of types of fish are commonly eaten, salmon has emerged as the most popular, outside of canned tuna.
Part of salmon’s appeal lies in its omega-3 content, since the public’s interest in omega-3s has greatly increased over the past couple of decades. Salmon is also highly visible at the grocery store and commonly available both fresh and frozen (the latter option being much cheaper).
Wild-caught salmon has several potential advantages over farmed salmon. The latter is often fed a more plant-based diet, compared to decades past, which means their omega-3 content has decreased while their omega-6 content has increased.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29514891|title=Are we what we eat? Changes to the feed fatty acid composition of farmed salmon and its effects through the food chain|published=2018 Mar 7|authors=Sissener NH|journal=J Exp Biol|][reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16251623|title=Quantitative analysis of the benefits and risks of consuming farmed and wild salmon|published=2005 Nov|authors=Foran JA, Good DH, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ|journal=J Nutr|] Farmed salmon is also higher in a few contaminants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15506184|title=Global assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in farmed and wild salmon|published=2004 Oct 1|authors=Hites RA, Foran JA, Schwager SJ, Knuth BA, Hamilton MC, Carpenter DO|journal=Environ Sci Technol|][reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15866762|title=Risk-based consumption advice for farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon contaminated with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds|published=2005 May|authors=Foran JA, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ|journal=Environ Health Perspect|]
Note that you don’t have to eat fish high in omega-3s in order to get enough omega-3s in your diet. You can eat fish lower in omega-3s, or even no fish at all. Your omega-3 needs are actually quite low, but overconsumption of cheap vegetable oils contributes to harmfully high ratios of omega-6s to omega-3s in many people’s diets.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12442909|title=The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids|published=2002 Oct|authors=Simopoulos AP|journal=Biomed Pharmacother|] So rather than relying on large amounts of omega-3 fish or supplements, an easier and cheaper route could be to reduce your consumption of cheap vegetable oils high in omega-6s.
Wild-caught salmon has much wider availability than other wild-caught seafood options. While farmed salmon also provides high levels of omega-3s, wild-caught salmon has a better ratio of omega-3s to omega-6, as well as lower contaminant levels.
Pasture-finished ground beef: a dollar seventy-five per quarter pound
Along with wild-caught salmon, the other main option when looking for products made of naturally fed animals is pasture-raised beef. In the US, sales of pasture-finished beef have gone from $17 million in 2012 to $272 million in 2016.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30941351|title=Is Grassfed Meat and Dairy Better for Human and Environmental Health?|published=2019 Mar 19|authors=Provenza FD, Kronberg SL, Gregorini P|journal=Front Nutr|]
Other than beef and fish, animals raised for their meat are seldom naturally fed. For example, chickens in the wild are omnivores who will eat bugs and small animals when possible. Chickens sold in grocery stores, on the other hand, have usually been tightly packed in barns, with little if any access to the outdoors, and fed a 100% vegetarian diet that includes corn and soy supplemented with the amino acid methionine.
Pasture-finished cows eat grass in higher amounts than non-pasture-finished cows (who also start their lives eating grass but are later transitioned to eating corn and soy in feedlots) and thus receive more of the fatty acids in grass. This makes the beef taste different (some say more “gamey”) but also substantially boosts its content in omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20219103|title=A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef|published=2010 Mar 10|authors=Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S|journal=Nutr J|][reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20219103|title=A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef|published=2010 Mar 10|authors=Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S|journal=Nutr J|]
Among the main land-animal options — chicken, pork, and beef — only one is widely available as “naturally fed” meat. And that is grass-fed, pasture-finished beef. It has a better fatty acid profile than non-pasture-finished beef.
Canned oysters: a dollar per two ounces
Canned oysters can be considered cheap only when compared to fresh shellfish options; as a source of protein, they’re still very expensive. So why would you consider buying them? There is one major reason: mineral content.
Oysters are extremely high in zinc — two ounces of oyster contain nearly 400% of the recommended zinc intake. They’re also rich in copper, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids. Oysters are a nutritional powerhouse, especially for people who don’t eat much other animal products and may be low in those nutrients that are rare in plant-based foods.
Fresh shellfish isn’t an option for most people, because of cost or availability. Canned oysters provide a relatively cheap option for getting high levels of certain micronutrients in whole-food form.
Pastured eggs: a dollar per two eggs
Eggs are typically seen as a cheap source of protein. But pastured eggs aren’t actually that cheap compared to other animal protein sources, unless you have backyard chickens. So why are they on this list?
Compared to non-pastured eggs, pastured eggs are higher in omega-3s and fat-soluble vitamins.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28108729|title=Comparative omega-3 fatty acid enrichment of egg yolks from first-cycle laying hens fed flaxseed oil or ground flaxseed|published=2017 Jun 1|authors=Ehr IJ, Persia ME, Bobeck EA|journal=Poult Sci|][reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21673178|title=Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities|published=2011 Jul|authors=Anderson KE|journal=Poult Sci|] That said, even non-pastured eggs are nutrient powerhouses. Eggs contain especially high levels of choline, an essential nutrient with a variety of health benefits.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19906248|title=Choline: an essential nutrient for public health|published=2009 Nov|authors=Zeisel SH, da Costa KA|journal=Nutr Rev|] They’re also good sources of B vitamins, highly-bioavailable vitamin A, and selenium. Nutrients are concentrated in the yolk, so don't expect to be able to throw away the yolk (maybe because you fear it will raise your cholesterol) and still obtain all those benefits.
Perhaps the most appealing feature of eggs is their versatility. Eggs can be hard boiled then stored as a protein-rich snack. They can also be part of a wide variety of dishes such as quiche, omelets, and scrambles.
Eggs make for a unique mix of palatability, culinary versatility, and micronutrient density. Pastured eggs are much more expensive, but they have an even better nutrient profile.
Eggs can be considered healthy. They can have downsides depending how many you consume and your state of health, but in general they are safe to consume.
What’s in an Egg?
The albumen (the white of the egg) is mostly made of protein. It contains B-vitamins but also avidin, a protein that can bind certain B-vitamins, such as biotin, and thus prevent their absorption. Luckily, a sizeable portion of avidin is destroyed by prolonged heating (including pasteurization), so nutrient loss can be mitigated.
The albumen is mostly water and protein. Alas, it contains the anti-nutrient avidin. Since heat can destroy avidin, egg whites should be cooked to avoid possible nutrient loss.
Egg yolk fat is about 46% oleic acid, an omega-9 monounsaturated fat commonly found in olive oil, 38% saturated fat, and 16% polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs).
The PUFA ratio depends on how the chickens were raised.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18991244|title=Biochemical effects of consumption of eggs containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids|published=2008|authors=Ohman M, Akerfeldt T, Nilsson I, Rosen C, Hansson LO, Carlsson M, Larsson A|journal=Ups J Med Sci] Since most chickens are fed grains high in omega-6 PUFAs, eggs at your local supermarket will usually be much higher in omega-6 than in omega-3 PUFAs, whereas chickens that are pasture-fed or fed with a special omega-3 diet will have a more balanced PUFA ratio.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17134951|title=Decrease in blood triglycerides associated with the consumption of eggs of hens fed with food supplemented with fish oil|published=2007 May|authors=Bovet P, Faeh D, Madeleine G, Viswanathan B, Paccaud F|journal=Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis]
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 PUFAs. In humans, ALA converts to the more active EPA and DHA, but this conversion isn’t very efficient and further diminishes as we age, so adding EPA and DHA to our diets is seen as more beneficial than adding ALA.
Most hens fed an omega-3 diet are given ALA. Fewer are given fish oil, which contain EPA and DHA; the “fish-like” taste and smell of their eggs tend to make those less popular.
The omega-3 content of yolks can be increased by altering the hens’ diet through supplemental omega-3 fats in the form of ALA or EPA+DHA. Eggs enriched with EPA+DHA (through fish oil) are considered more beneficial, but their minor fish-like taste and smell tend to make them less popular.
Yolks also have high levels of carotenoids (mostly lutein and zeaxanthin) that are capable of increasing carotenoid concentrations both in plasma[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16988120|title=Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations|published=2006 Oct|authors=Goodrow EF, Wilson TA, Houde SC, Vishwanathan R, Scollin PA, Handelman G, Nicolosi RJ|journal=J Nutr] and in specific tissues such as the eyes.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19759170|title=Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins|published=2009 Nov|authors=Vishwanathan R, Goodrow-Kotyla EF, Wooten BR, Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ|journal=Am J Clin Nutr] Perhaps more importantly, yolks are among the richest sources of choline, a nutrient associated with a number of health benefits.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19906248|title=Choline: an essential nutrient for public health|published=2009 Nov|authors=Zeisel SH, da Costa KA|journal=Nutr Rev|]
Finally, although the yolk contains less protein than the albumen, it has higher concentrations of the essential amino acid leucine.
The yolk is mostly made of fatty acids, cholesterol, and fat-soluble nutrients. Although lower in protein than the albumen, it contains higher concentrations of leucine, an essential amino acid.
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance present in all our cells. It serves many functions, such as providing the raw material for pregnenolone, from which are derived many other hormones: cortisol, DHEA, testosterone …
Cholesterol is shuttled throughout the body by two kinds of carriers made of fat on the inside and protein on the outside: low-density lipoproteins (LDL, often called the “bad cholesterol”) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL, often called the “good cholesterol”).
Cholesterol levels as measured by typical blood tests reflect both the cholesterol than we produce and the cholesterol that we ingest. (Most people produce more cholesterol than they ingest.)
Cholesterol can form small crystal aggregates, found in atherosclerotic plaques.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3348756|title=George Lyman Duff memorial lecture. Progression and regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Insights from lipid physical biochemistry|published=1988 Mar-Apr|authors=Small DM|journal=Arteriosclerosis] Immune cells called macrophages can take up those crystals, thus activating the NLRP3 inflammasome.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20668705|title=Cholesterol crystals activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages: a novel link between cholesterol metabolism and inflammation|published=2010 Jul 23|authors=Rajamäki K, Lappalainen J, Oörni K, Välimäki E, Matikainen S, Kovanen PT, Eklund KK|journal=PLoS One] Supporting this idea, other crystals such such as silica[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18604214|title=Silica crystals and aluminum salts have been shown to activate the inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization|published=2008 Aug|authors=Hornung V, Bauernfeind F, Halle A, Samstad EO, Kono H, Rock KL, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E|journal=Nat Immunol] and uric acid[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16407889|title=Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome|published=2006 Mar 9|authors=Martinon F, Pétrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J|journal=Nature] have been shown to trigger inflammasome activation.
Inflammasome activation triggers in turn the release of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1beta and IL-18, which appear to be critical to atherosclerotic progression.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428172|title=NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals|published=2010 Apr 29|authors=Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner KJ, Sirois CM, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind FG, Abela GS, Franchi L, Nuñez G, Schnurr M, Espevik T, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Rock KL, Moore KJ, Wright SD, Hornung V, Latz E|journal=Nature]
It is mechanistically possible for cholesterol to form crystals that can trigger an inflammatory response that may promote atherosclerosis.
Observational studies in middle-aged Japanese people[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17092383|title=Egg consumption, serum total cholesterol concentrations and coronary heart disease incidence: Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study|published=2006 Nov|authors=Nakamura Y, Iso H, Kita Y, Ueshima H, Okada K, Konishi M, Inoue M, Tsugane S|journal=Br J Nutr] and in people on a Mediterranean diet[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21427738|title=Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN Project|published=2011 Jun|authors=Zazpe I, Beunza JJ, Bes-Rastrollo M, Warnberg J, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Benito S, Vázquez Z, Martínez-González MA; SUN Project Investigators|journal=Eur J Clin Nutr] found no association between egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease. Another observational study found no increase in the risk of stroke or coronary artery disease in people consuming 1–6 eggs per week,[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179903|title=Regular egg consumption does not increase the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases|published=2007 Jan|authors=Qureshi AI, Suri FK, Ahmed S, Nasar A, Divani AA, Kirmani JF|journal=Med Sci Monit][reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20633314|title=Egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality: a prospective study of US adults|published=2011 Feb|authors=Scrafford CG, Tran NL, Barraj LM, Mink PJ|journal=Public Health Nutr] whereas “greater than 6 eggs per week” appeared to increase the risk of coronary artery disease only in diabetics.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179903|title=Regular egg consumption does not increase the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases|published=2007 Jan|authors=Qureshi AI, Suri FK, Ahmed S, Nasar A, Divani AA, Kirmani JF|journal=Med Sci Monit]
Similar results were found in an observational study in diabetics that compared one egg per week with no egg.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10217054|title=A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women|published=1999 Apr 21|authors=Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Ascherio A, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Spiegelman D, Speizer FE, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Willett WC|journal=JAMA] Another study noted no connection between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease, but did find stronger associations in diabetics between egg consumption and increased mortality.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18400720|title=Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians’ Health Study|published=2008 Apr|authors=Djoussé L, Gaziano JM|journal=Am J Clin Nutr]
Observational studies looking at egg consumption specifically (rather than at dietary cholesterol overall) have not found it to be associated with any form of cardiovascular disease, except maybe in diabetics.
Although observational evidence may suggest a link between egg consumption and heart disease in diabetics, randomized controlled trials have found no such link:
In a 3-month study, 140 people with diabetes or prediabetes were randomized to eat either 2 eggs six times a week or 2 or fewer eggs for the entire week. No difference in HDL, LDL, triglyceride levels, or glycemic control was found.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25833969|title=The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trial|published=2015 Apr|authors=Fuller NR, Caterson ID, Sainsbury A, Denyer G, Fong M, Gerofi J, Baqleh K, Williams KH, Lau NS, Markovic TP|journal=Am J Clin Nutr|]
In a 5-week randomized crossover study, 29 people with type-2 diabetes consumed at breakfast either 1 egg with vegetables and bread or half a cup of oatmeal with milk. No difference in plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, or plasma lipids was found between the egg and oatmeal periods.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25970149|title=One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients|published=2015 May 11|authors=Ballesteros MN, Valenzuela F, Robles AE, Artalejo E, Aguilar D, Andersen CJ, Valdez H, Fernandez ML|journal=Nutrients|]
In a 12-week study, 37 people with type-2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome were put on a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet and then randomized between two groups: one eating 3 whole eggs per day; the other 3 albumens per day. Both groups lost weight and saw improvements in insulin sensitivity and their lipid profiles, but the whole-egg group saw a greater improvement in their lipid profiles in some respects: They had more HDL, less VLDL, and a better LDL and HDL diameter profile than the albumen group.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23021013|title=Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome|published=2013 Mar|authors=Blesso CN, Andersen CJ, Barona J, Volek JS, Fernandez ML|journal=Metabolism|] A follow-up analysis of the same study also found more improvements in markers of inflammation in the whole-egg group than in the albumen group.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24079288|title=Effects of carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol provided by eggs on clinical risk factors in metabolic syndrome|published=2013 Sep-Oct|authors=Blesso CN, Andersen CJ, Barona J, Volk B, Volek JS, Fernandez ML|journal=J Clin Lipidol|]
Similarly, a controlled trial of hyperlipidemic patients consuming eggs (relative to other dietary sources of cholesterol and fat) associated no negative effects with egg consumption, although substituting the eggs with egg protein containing added nutrients was seen as beneficial.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20598142|title=Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk|published=2010 Jul 2|authors=Njike V, Faridi Z, Dutta S, Gonzalez-Simon AL, Katz DL|journal=Nutr J]
Risk factors didn’t worsen in healthy college students when eggs were added to their diet, either. These students were randomized to eat either a breakfast with 2 eggs or without eggs five times a week for 14 weeks. They were allowed to eat whatever they wanted otherwise, although people in the “without eggs” group were encouraged not to eat any eggs at all. By the end of the study, both groups had gained weight and had worse blood lipid profiles, with no significant difference between groups.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24352089|title=Impact of breakfasts (with or without eggs) on body weight regulation and blood lipids in university students over a 14-week semester|published=2013 Dec 16|authors=Rueda JM, Khosla P|journal=Nutrients|]
In controlled trials, whether in healthy people or in people suffering from diabetes or hyperlipidemia, egg consumption was not associated with an increase in risk markers for cardiovascular health, insulin sensitivity, or blood glucose.
As we’ve seen, observational evidence may suggest a link between egg consumption and heart disease in diabetics. Observational evidence may also suggest a link between egg consumption and the risk of developing diabetes. In one study, eggs in the diet (from “almost never” to “almost daily”) didn’t appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes,[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20534749|title=Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults|published=2010 Aug|authors=Djoussé L, Kamineni A, Nelson TL, Carnethon M, Mozaffarian D, Siscovick D, Mukamal KJ|journal=Am J Clin Nutr] but other studies noted a positive association, with the controls being education, family history of diabetes, and baseline biomarkers for disease states (such as plasma triglycerides).[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22390963|title=Egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study|published=2012 Aug|authors=Ra.dzevičienė L, Ostrauskas R|journal=Public Health Nutr][reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19017774|title=Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women|published=2009 Feb|authors=Djoussé L, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Lee IM|journal=Diabetes Care][reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20471806|title=Egg consumption and the risk of diabetes in adults, Jiangsu, China|published=2011 Feb|authors=Shi Z, Yuan B, Zhang C, Zhou M, Holmboe-Ottesen G|journal=Nutrition] Finally, two studies reported a stronger association in women than in men.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20471806|title=Egg consumption and the risk of diabetes in adults, Jiangsu, China|published=2011 Feb|authors=Shi Z, Yuan B, Zhang C, Zhou M, Holmboe-Ottesen G|journal=Nutrition][reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22390963|title=Egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study|published=2012 Aug|authors=Radzevičienė L, Ostrauskas R|journal=Public Health Nutr]
If you look only at observational evidence, there would appear to be some connection between egg consumption and the risk of developing diabetes.
In a 14-week study, healthy college students randomized to eat either 2 eggs five times a week or no eggs gained weight in an equal measure.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24352089|title=Impact of breakfasts (with or without eggs) on body weight regulation and blood lipids in university students over a 14-week semester|published=2013 Dec 16|authors=Rueda JM, Khosla P|journal=Nutrients|]
In a 12-week study, two groups of diabetics suffering from obesity started a weight-loss diet. One group ate 2 eggs per day; the other, none. Both groups saw an equal decrease in LDL and total cholesterol, but the egg group enjoyed a greater increase in HDL. There was no difference in blood pressure or blood glucose between groups, but the reduction in fasting insulin seen with weight loss was lesser in the egg group.[reference|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134328|title=Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes|published=2011 Feb|authors=Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes M|journal=Br J Nutr]
In a 5-week randomized crossover study, 29 people with type-2 diabetes consumed at breakfast either 1 egg with vegetables and bread or half a cup of oatmeal with milk. As we have previously noted, no difference in plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, or plasma lipids was found between the egg and oatmeal periods. No difference in body weight, body fat, or BMI was found either.[reference|url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25970149|title=One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients|published=2015 May 11|authors=Ballesteros MN, Valenzuela F, Robles AE, Artalejo E, Aguilar D, Andersen CJ, Valdez H, Fernandez ML|journal=Nutrients|]
Studies on diabetics have noted no adverse effects of egg consumption on different health markers.