Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects safflower oil has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|C-Reactive Protein||Minor||- See study|
|HDL-C||Minor||- See study|
|HbA1c||Minor||- See study|
|Lean Mass||Minor||- See study|
|Blood Glucose||-||- See study|
|Fat Mass||-||- See study|
|Insulin||-||- See study|
|Insulin Sensitivity||-||- See study|
|LDL-C||-||- See study|
|Triglycerides||-||- See study|
|Weight||-||- See study|
Scientific Research on Safflower Oil
Click on any below to expand the corresponding section. Click on to collapse it.
High Oleic Safflower Oil contains:
Oleic acid as primary monounsaturated, at around 75%
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at around 13%
Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) at around 8%
Vitamin E at 34.1mg per 100mL
Vitamin K at 7.1mcg per 100mL
High Linoleic Safflower Oil contains similar levels of micronutrients, with the percentage of fatty acids coming from monounsaturated (primarily oleic) and polyunsaturated (primarily omega-6) reversed; there is an insignificant level of polyunsaturated fatty acids as omega-3.
A study without dietary controls conducted in post-menopausal and diabetic women comparing the effects of Safflower Oil (8g daily) against Conjugated Linoleic Acid at 8g found that safflower oil was associated with a higher blood level of CLA isomers at 4 weeks of treatment and was able to reduce some signs of diabetes minimally at 12 weeks, when compared to CLA. Both treatments showed minor shifts towards a better body composition, with 1kg of lean mass replacing 1kg of lost body fat (rough values) after 12 weeks of supplementation.
Anti-inflammatory properties have also been attributed to Safflower Oil, but at least one commentor has suggested this may just be due to the Vitamin E content of Safflower Oil, as the mechanisms observed (downregulation of ICAM-1, a cellular adhesion molecule) is shared with Vitamin E.
Safflower oil might exert protective effects on the body, particularly in obese diabetics; however, these effects seem to take a long time to occur, and may not occur with isolated Conjugated Linoleic Acid supplementation
The same research group also assessed changes in weight, and found that, in regards to total fat mass, that Conjugated Linoleic Acid was effective over 16 weeks (−1076 ± 849g of fat) whereas Safflower Oil led to a non-significant increase (80 ± 667g of fat) which resulted in differences in end weight; CLA significantly reducing overall weight by 1.25 ± 0.71kg and Safflower Oil insignificantly reducing weight by 0.11 ± 0.55kg. When only assessing only trunk adiposity by DEXA, it was found that Conjugated Linoleic acid caused a significant increase (1075 ± 1184g) whereas Safflower Oil caused a selective decrease (−1203 ± 852g) as well as CLA reducing overall lean mass (−412 ± 756g) and Safflower Oil increasing lean mass (1402 ± 594g).
Many other studies conducted on Conjugated Linoleic Acid use Safflower Oil as a control, and frequently note no significant effects on measured parameters such as weight of fat mass in the range of 3-6g daily, in time spans ranging from 4 weeks to 6 months.
The effects seem to be present, with a slightly beneficial shift of fat mass away from the trunk despite not actually burning it. These may be secondary to changes in glycemic control, and more studies should be done before Safflower Oil is considered a fat burner
- Zhang HL, et al. Antioxidative compounds isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil cake. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (1997)
- Nutrient data for 04511, Oil, safflower, salad or cooking, high oleic (primary safflower oil of commerce).
- Nutrient data for 04510, Oil, safflower, salad or cooking, linoleic, (over 70%).
- Asp ML, et al. Time-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Clin Nutr. (2011)
- Norris LE, et al. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
- Nicholls SJ, et al. Consumption of saturated fat impairs the anti-inflammatory properties of high-density lipoproteins and endothelial function. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2006)
- Masterjohn C. The anti-inflammatory properties of safflower oil and coconut oil may be mediated by their respective concentrations of vitamin E. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2007)
- Pfeuffer M, et al. CLA does not impair endothelial function and decreases body weight as compared with safflower oil in overweight and obese male subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. (2011)