Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by the destruction of the myelin sheaths (nerve insulators) on neurons in the central nervous system. Its symptoms can vary, but eye pain, difficulty balancing, and numbness, tingling, and weakness in limbs are common. Attacks are “multiple” over time and/or location in the nervous system.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) falls under theAutoimmune Diseasecategory.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by what is most likely an autoimmune attack on the central nervous system. The most well-known aspect of MS (and the reason for its name) is the destruction of the myelin sheaths that insulate neurons, which results in the formation of lesions throughout the brain and spinal cord. The myelin sheath forms the insulation around axons of neurons, and allows efficient propagation of electrical impulses from one neuron to the next. Their destruction slows down or stops electrical conduction, leading to the neurological deficits associated with the condition.
The main symptoms of multiple sclerosis are optic neuritis, blurred or double vision, instability and dizziness, numbness or tingling in limbs, weakness in limbs, muscle spasticity, and incontinence. The main signs of multiple sclerosis are lesions in the central nervous system.
No single piece of information is sufficient for diagnosing MS. In order for a clinician to make an MS diagnosis, they must observe lesions in at least 2 areas of the central nervous system and find evidence that these lesions formed at different points in time. More details about the diagnosis of MS can be found here.
Drugs are the primary treatment for MS. Pharmaceuticals are used to either reduce the rate of disease progression or the rate of relapse, manage relapses by speeding recovery, or treat specific symptoms.
Vitamin D, vitamin A, biotin, and L-carnitine have all been studied in the context of multiple sclerosis. Although all of them could potentially have effects on the disease (i.e., they have plausible mechanisms through which they could improve MS), no research thus far has been tremendously compelling.
There hasn’t been much research on diet and MS, but it’s been hypothesized that hypercaloric and proinflammatory diets like the Western diet may be harmful for MS. Additionally, people who had obesity (BMI of at least 30 kg/m2) in childhood to young adulthood have about double the risk of developing MS as people who did not have obesity during this time period.
Cannabinoids can bind to receptors throughout the brain and body and play a role in motor control, inflammation, and cognition. Based on the current understanding of the research, it seems that cannabis (or synthetic cannabinoids) can slightly reduce pain and bladder dysfunction, and many people with MS report improvements, but these outcomes can’t be measured objectively. It’s not clear if cannabis improves cognitive symptoms beyond any mood-elevating properties.
The immune system is heavily involved in the development of MS, but it’s not clear what provokes this response in the first place. Genetics, viral infections, and other environmental factors have all been connected to MS in observational research. Psychological stress (e.g., parental divorce and extreme grief) may also predispose people to the disease.
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- Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms - William Camu, Philippe Lehert, Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Patrick Hautecoeur, Anne Besserve, Anne-Sophie Jean Deleglise, Marianne Payet, Eric Thouvenot, Jean Claude SouberbielleCholecalciferol in relapsing-remitting MS: A randomized clinical trial (CHOLINE)Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm.(2019 Aug 6)
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- Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms - Sama Bitarafan, Aliakbar Saboor-Yaraghi, Mohammad-Ali Sahraian, Danesh Soltani, Shahriar Nafissi, Mansoureh Togha, Nahid Beladi Moghadam, Tina Roostaei, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Mohammad-Hossein HarirchianEffect of Vitamin A Supplementation on fatigue and depression in Multiple Sclerosis patients: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical TrialIran J Allergy Asthma Immunol.(2016 Feb)
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- Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms - Bruce A C Cree, Gary Cutter, Jerry S Wolinsky, Mark S Freedman, Giancarlo Comi, Gavin Giovannoni, Hans-Peter Hartung, Douglas Arnold, Jens Kuhle, Valerie Block, Frederick E Munschauer, Frédéric Sedel, Fred D Lublin, SPI2 investigative teamsSafety and efficacy of MD1003 (high-dose biotin) in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (SPI2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trialLancet Neurol.(2020 Dec)
- Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms - Tourbah A, Lebrun-Frenay C, Edan G, Clanet M, Papeix C, Vukusic S, De Sèze J, Debouverie M, Gout O, Clavelou P, Defer G, Laplaud DA, Moreau T, Labauge P, Brochet B, Sedel F, Pelletier J, MD1003 (high-dose biotin) for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Mult Scler.(2016-11)
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