Advanced Glycation End Products

Last Updated: March 14, 2022

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are highly reactive compounds that result from chemical reactions in the body. While their formation is a byproduct of normal metabolism, a growing body of evidence suggest they may be linked with many chronic diseases.


Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are highly reactive compounds that result from a chemical reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids (also known as a Maillard reaction) and from the oxidation of sugars, lipids, and amino acids. Although the formation of AGEs within the body is a part of normal metabolism, a growing body of evidence[1][2][3] suggests that excessive AGE levels promote oxidative stress and inflammation and may therefore increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and infertility.

AGEs were first recognized as being produced within the body under conditions of increased oxidative stress. However, it is now known that dietary AGEs are important contributors[4] to the body’s total AGE concentration, where they become indistinguishable[5] from those AGEs produced within the body itself. The most widely studied AGE is carboxymethyllysine (CML), while another common marker of AGE formation is methyl-glyoxal (MG).

Examine Database: Advanced Glycation End Products
What works and what doesn't?

Unlock the full potential of Examine

Get started

Don't miss out on the latest research

  1. ^Masayoshi TakeuchiSerum Levels of Toxic AGEs (TAGE) May Be a Promising Novel Biomarker for the Onset/Progression of Lifestyle-Related DiseasesDiagnostics (Basel).(2016 Jun 7)
  2. ^Mona S Ottum, Anahita M MistryAdvanced glycation end-products: modifiable environmental factors profoundly mediate insulin resistanceJ Clin Biochem Nutr.(2015 Jul)
  3. ^Jaime Uribarri, María Dolores del Castillo, María Pía de la Maza, Rosana Filip, Alejandro Gugliucci, Claudia Luevano-Contreras, Maciste H Macías-Cervantes, Deborah H Markowicz Bastos, Alejandra Medrano, Teresita Menini, Manuel Portero-Otin, Armando Rojas, Geni Rodrigues Sampaio, Kazimierz Wrobel, Katarzyna Wrobel, Ma Eugenia Garay-SevillaDietary advanced glycation end products and their role in health and diseaseAdv Nutr.(2015 Jul 15)
  4. ^Teresia Goldberg, Weijing Cai, Melpomeni Peppa, Veronique Dardaine, Bantwal Suresh Baliga, Jaime Uribarri, Helen VlassaraAdvanced glycoxidation end products in commonly consumed foodsJ Am Diet Assoc.(2004 Aug)
  5. ^Weijing Cai, Qiao-Di Gao, Li Zhu, Melpomeni Peppa, Cijiang He, Helen VlassaraOxidative stress-inducing carbonyl compounds from common foods: novel mediators of cellular dysfunctionMol Med.(2002 Jul)
Examine Database References
  1. Benfotiamine - Alkhalaf A, Kleefstra N, Groenier KH, Bilo HJ, Gans RO, Heeringa P, Scheijen JL, Schalkwijk CG, Navis GJ, Bakker SJEffect of benfotiamine on advanced glycation endproducts and markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in diabetic nephropathyPLoS One.(2012)
  2. Coenzyme Q10 - Mirhashemi SM, Najafi V, Raygan F, Asemi ZThe effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on cardiometabolic markers in overweight type 2 diabetic patients with stable myocardial infarction: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialARYA Atheroscler.(2016 Jul)
  3. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide - Katayoshi T, Uehata S, Nakashima N, Nakajo T, Kitajima N, Kageyama M, Tsuji-Naito KNicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and arterial stiffness after long-term nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Sci Rep.(2023-Feb-16)