Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a form of vitamin B3 taken to boost levels of NAD+ and for its purported anti-aging effects. Although NMN was formerly available as a supplement, classification of NMN in the U.S. as an investigational drug has reduced its availability to consumers in the U.S.
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide is most often used for
NMN is a naturally occurring form of Vitamin B3 that is studied for slowing aging and for preventing diseases of aging. Dietary NMN is converted to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme in all living cells which is required for numerous biological processes. NAD+ levels naturally decline with age, reaching less than 50% of youthful levels by middle age. Decreased NAD+ levels have been attributed to increased inflammation and oxidative stress as well as to the development of age-related conditions such as hypertension, cognitive decline, and type 2 diabetes. While the anti-aging effects of NMN in rodents are well-established, studies are ongoing to determine whether equally impressive anti-aging effects are possible in humans.
NMN is taken as a supplement to increase levels of the coenzyme NAD+. It is unknown whether NMN will have the same therapeutic effects in humans as seen in rodent models, but emerging evidence is promising.
So far, most randomized controlled trials in humans have focused on proving the safety of NMN supplements and their ability to increase blood NAD+ levels in different populations. Some clinical research has shown that NMN increases physical ability in aging populations, improves cardiovascular disease biomarkers such as arterial stiffness, and increases cellular NAD+/NADH levels. Although these results have been promising, additional large-scale trials are needed to better understand the benefits in humans.
The main drawback to NMN is a lack of long-term studies in humans. NMN has been shown to be safe in doses up to 1200 mg daily for 6 weeks and 900 mg daily for 8 weeks. Doses of 2000 mg daily have been taken for up to 14 days with no adverse effects. Long-term safety of chronic and/or higher doses of NMN hasn’t been tested.
It is also important to note that the effects of boosting NAD+ levels may not all be beneficial in certain contexts. For example, high-dose NMN supplementation has been linked to acute liver toxicity.
As a precursor to NAD+, NMN supplementation has the potential to restore NAD+ to youthful levels, thereby restoring the function of NAD+-dependent enzymes in the body. After NMN is taken, it is absorbed into the bloodstream and rapidly converted to NAD+, which is an important cofactor for many biological processes, including immune response, DNA repair, cell division, mitochondrial function, epigenetics, and redox reactions. As NAD+ levels naturally decrease with age, the activity of enzymes dependent on NAD+ for their function also decreases. Since reduced activity of NAD+-consuming enzymes (e.g. sirtuin 1) has been linked to the aging process, restoring NAD+ levels to more youthful levels is theorized to slow down the aging process. 
- Beta-nicotinamide mononucleotidee
- Nicotinamide mononucleotide
- Nicotinamide ribotide
- NMN zwitterion
- Nicotinamide nucleotide
- Beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide
- Nicotinamide ribonucleotide
- Vitamin B3
- Nicotinamide riboside
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- Walking Ability - Yi L, Maier AB, Tao R, Lin Z, Vaidya A, Pendse S, Thasma S, Andhalkar N, Avhad G, Kumbhar VThe efficacy and safety of β-nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation in healthy middle-aged adults: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-dependent clinical trial.Geroscience.(2023-Feb)
- Insulin Resistance - Huang HA Multicentre, Randomised, Double Blind, Parallel Design, Placebo Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Uthever (NMN Supplement), an Orally Administered Supplementation in Middle Aged and Older Adults.Front Aging.(2022)
- Pulse Wave Velocity - Katayoshi T, Uehata S, Nakashima N, Nakajo T, Kitajima N, Kageyama M, Tsuji-Naito KNicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and arterial stiffness after long-term nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Sci Rep.(2023-Feb-16)
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- Insulin Resistance - Mihoko Yoshino, Jun Yoshino, Brandon D Kayser, Gary J Patti, Michael P Franczyk, Kathryn F Mills, Miriam Sindelar, Terri Pietka, Bruce W Patterson, Shin-Ichiro Imai, Samuel KleinNicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic womenScience.(2021 Jun 11)