Pre-Eclampsia Risk

Last Updated: March 16, 2022

Pre-Eclampsia refers to a spike in blood pressure and proteinuria that some pregant women experience, and due to the severity of this condition some supplements are sought after for reducing the risk of it ever developing.


While many pregnancies go smoothly, problems can come up. One of those problems is a sharp rise in blood pressure, resulting in hypertension. Hypertension-related complications of pregnancy impact roughly 5-8%[1] of all pregnancies. This risk is 1.5-2[2] times higher for first pregnancies. Hypertension in pregnancy can be quite dangerous—it’s responsible for 14%[3] of all pregnancy-related deaths. Among hypertension-related complications, pre-eclampsia makes up roughly half of these.

Pre-eclampsia[4] is clinically defined as elevated blood pressure (140/90 mmHg over two occasions, or 160/110 on one occasion) in women who aren’t normally hypertensive, occurring after 20 weeks of pregnancy, accompanied by protein in the urine, liver or kidney problems, fluid in the lungs, or low platelet count.

The causes and effects of pre-eclampsia are laid out in Figure 1. Reductions in pre-eclampsia may reduce the overall risk of maternal deaths.


Examine Database: Pre-Eclampsia Risk
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  1. ^Umesawa M, Kobashi GEpidemiology of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors, predictors and prognosisHypertens Res.(2017 Mar)
  2. ^Ananth CV, Keyes KM, Wapner RJPre-eclampsia rates in the United States, 1980-2010: age-period-cohort analysisBMJ.(2013 Nov 7)
  3. ^Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A, Tunçalp Ö, Moller AB, Daniels J, Gülmezoglu AM, Temmerman M, Alkema LGlobal causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysisLancet Glob Health.(2014 Jun)
  4. ^ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 202: Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia.Obstet Gynecol.(2019-Jan)
Examine Database References
  1. Selenium - Xu M, Guo D, Gu H, Zhang L, Lv SSelenium and Preeclampsia: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysisBiol Trace Elem Res.(2016 Jun)
  2. Vitamin C - Kalpdev A, Saha SC, Dhawan VVitamin C and E supplementation does not reduce the risk of superimposed PE in pregnancyHypertens Pregnancy.(2011)
  3. Calcium - Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Pridmore B, Bryce R, Duggan P, Hague WM, Robinson JSCalcium supplementation in nulliparous women for the prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm birth: an Australian randomized trial. FRACOG and the ACT Study GroupAust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol.(1999 Feb)
  4. Fish Oil - Makrides M, Duley L, Olsen SFMarine oil, and other prostaglandin precursor, supplementation for pregnancy uncomplicated by pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth restrictionCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2006 Jul 19)
  5. Fish Oil - Zhou SJ, Yelland L, McPhee AJ, Quinlivan J, Gibson RA, Makrides MFish-oil supplementation in pregnancy does not reduce the risk of gestational diabetes or preeclampsiaAm J Clin Nutr.(2012 Jun)
  6. Selenium - Rayman MP, Searle E, Kelly L, Johnsen S, Bodman-Smith K, Bath SC, Mao J, Redman CWEffect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trialBr J Nutr.(2014 Jul 14)
  7. Selenium - Tara F, Maamouri G, Rayman MP, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Sahebkar A, Yazarlu O, Ouladan S, Tavallaie S, Azimi-Nezhad M, Shakeri MT, Boskabadi H, Oladi M, Sangani MT, Razavi BS, Ferns GSelenium supplementation and the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant Iranian women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trialTaiwan J Obstet Gynecol.(2010 Jun)
  8. Calcium - Sibai BM, Ewell M, Levine RJ, Klebanoff MA, Esterlitz J, Catalano PM, Goldenberg RL, Joffe GRisk factors associated with preeclampsia in healthy nulliparous women. The Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) Study GroupAm J Obstet Gynecol.(1997 Nov)
  9. Coenzyme Q10 - Teran E, Hernandez I, Nieto B, Tavara R, Ocampo JE, Calle ACoenzyme Q10 supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of pre-eclampsiaInt J Gynaecol Obstet.(2009 Apr)
  10. Calcium - Villar J, Abdel-Aleem H, Merialdi M, Mathai M, Ali MM, Zavaleta N, Purwar M, Hofmeyr J, Nguyen TN, Campódonico L, Landoulsi S, Carroli G, Lindheimer M, World Health Organization Calcium Supplementation for the Prevention of Preeclampsia Trial GroupWorld Health Organization randomized trial of calcium supplementation among low calcium intake pregnant womenAm J Obstet Gynecol.(2006 Mar)
  11. Calcium - Hofmeyr GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah AN, Duley L, Torloni MRCalcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problemsCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2014 Jun 24)
  12. Magnesium - Kandil M, Jaber S, Desai D, Nuñez Cruz S, Lomotan N, Ahmad U, Cirone M, Burkins J, McDowell MMAGraine: Magnesium compared to conventional therapy for treatment of migraines.Am J Emerg Med.(2021-Jan)
  13. Magnesium - de Araújo CAL, de Sousa Oliveira L, de Gusmão IMB, Guimarães A, Ribeiro M, Alves JGBMagnesium supplementation and preeclampsia in low-income pregnant women - a randomized double-blind clinical trial.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.(2020-Apr-09)
  14. Magnesium - Carla Adriane Leal de Araújo, Joel Geoffrey Ray, José Natal Figueiroa, João Guilherme AlvesBRAzil magnesium (BRAMAG) trial: a double-masked randomized clinical trial of oral magnesium supplementation in pregnancyBMC Pregnancy Childbirth.(2020 Apr 21)
  15. Magnesium - Marques BCAA, Klein MRST, da Cunha MR, de Souza Mattos S, de Paula Nogueira L, de Paula T, Corrêa FM, Oigman W, Neves MFEffects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Vascular Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev.(2020-Feb)
  16. Mediterranean Diet - Zhang Y, Xia M, Weng S, Wang C, Yuan P, Tang SEffect of Mediterranean diet for pregnant women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.(2022-Dec)
  17. Mediterranean Diet - Liu L, Zhou Y, He LMediterranean diet for the prevention of gestational diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.(2022-Dec)
  18. Mediterranean Diet - Yang J, Song Y, Gaskins AJ, Li LJ, Huang Z, Eriksson JG, Hu FB, Chong YS, Zhang CMediterranean diet and female reproductive health over lifespan: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Am J Obstet Gynecol.(2023-Dec)