Quick Navigation

All-Cause Mortality

Research analysis lead by Kamal Patel
All content reviewed by Examine.com Team. Published:
Last Updated:

Summary of All-Cause Mortality

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

Scientific Information on All-Cause Mortality

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect all-cause mortality
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
grade-a Vitamin E
- See all 7 studies
Minor increases in all cause mortality have been noted in mostly unhealthy cohorts with doses of vitamin E above 400IU (alpha-tocopherol) whereas lower doses exert a mild protective effect in the same cohorts. The magnitude is approximately 33-34 deaths per 10,000 subjects (both for the increase in mortality seen with vitamin E multinutrient supplements and the decrease seen with vitamin E alone), and it is unsure how this information applies to otherwise healthy persons.
grade-c Vitamin D Minor Very High See 2 studies
Cohorts of people with higher serum Vitamin D appear to die less frequently than cohorts with less serum Vitamin D; this may be heavily influenced by reducing falls in the elderly (reduction of falls and subsequent hospitalizations reducing death rates)

All comparative evidence is now gathered in our ​A-to-Z Supplement Reference.

The evidence for each separate supplement is still freely available ​here.