Vegan Diet

Last Updated: September 28 2022

Vegan diets exclude all animal products. Veganism has rapidly increased in popularity, although randomized trials are still few in number. Trials do show promise for a variety of outcomes, from weight loss to autoimmunity, although comparisons to other popular diets are rare. A vegan diet should be balanced and low in processed foods (e.g. a "Whole Food Plant-Based diet") for optimal results.

Vegan Diet is most often used for

What are the main benefits of a vegan diet?

Even though eating a large variety and amount of plant foods is healthy, a vegan diet per se is not necessarily healthy — but it certainly can be. But what makes a vegan diet healthy?

As discussed in the previous question, a healthy vegan diet is based on whole foods and ideally includes a variety of food sources to ensure all critical nutrient needs are met. Appropriate supplementation can also help. If this is the case, a vegan diet is not only healthy, but may even have some advantages over a standard omnivorous diet.

First, a vegan diet can be more satiating than a regular omnivorous diet. This is because vegans eat more fiber-rich, low-calorie plant foods while avoiding nutrient-dense, processed animal products. Consequently, vegans often consume fewer calories than people eating a regular diet.[8][9]

Second, a vegan diet may lower the risk of certain lifestyle diseases. For instance, a plant-based diet is linked to lower incidence and mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%), according to a comprehensive meta-analysis of 86 cross-sectional and 10 prospective cohort studies.[10]

To find out more about how a vegan diet could reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, click here.

Overall, a vegan diet — if it is well designed — can be considered healthy. However, it’s unclear if a vegan diet is healthier than an omnivorous diet, assuming both diets are well designed. In the context of the current body of literature, claims that imply the superiority of a vegan diet over an omnivorous diet lack any scientific basis.

What else is Vegan Diet known as?
Note that Vegan Diet is also known as:
  • Plant-Based Diet
Examine Database
What works and what doesn't?

Unlock the full potential of Examine

Get started

Don't miss out on the latest research

Become an Examine Insider for FREE to stay on top of the latest nutrition research, supplement myths, and more

    1.^John DavisThe Origins of the Vegans: 1944-46The Vegan Society.(2016-09)
    2.^Ghaffari et alConsumers’ motivations for adopting a vegan diet: A mixed-methods approachInternational Journal of Consumer Studies.(2021-09)
    4.^Meike Janssen, Claudia Busch, Manika Rödiger, Ulrich HammMotives of consumers following a vegan diet and their attitudes towards animal agricultureAppetite.(2016 Oct 1)
    8.^Gwyneth K Davey, Elizabeth A Spencer, Paul N Appleby, Naomi E Allen, Katherine H Knox, Timothy J KeyEPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UKPublic Health Nutr.(2003 May)
    9.^Jocelyne R Benatar, Ralph A H StewartCardiometabolic risk factors in vegans; A meta-analysis of observational studiesPLoS One.(2018 Dec 20)
    10.^Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi FVegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studiesCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2017 Nov 22)
    11.^Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Charis R Davidson, Ellen E Wingard, Sara Wilcox, Edward A FrongilloComparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different dietsNutrition.(2015 Feb)
    12.^Lilli B Link, Judith S JacobsonFactors affecting adherence to a raw vegan dietComplement Ther Clin Pract.(2008 Feb)
    13.^Dimitra Rafailia Bakaloudi, Afton Halloran, Holly L Rippin, Artemis Christina Oikonomidou, Theodoros I Dardavesis, Julianne Williams, Kremlin Wickramasinghe, Joao Breda, Michail ChourdakisIntake and adequacy of the vegan diet. A systematic review of the evidenceClin Nutr.(2020 Dec 7)
    15.^Matthew B Ruby, Steven J HeineMeat, morals, and masculinityAppetite.(2011 Apr)
    17.^Shila Minari Hargreaves, António Raposo, Ariana Saraiva, Renata Puppin ZandonadiVegetarian Diet: An Overview through the Perspective of Quality of Life DomainsInt J Environ Res Public Health.(2021 Apr 12)
    18.^Medawar E, Huhn S, Villringer A, Veronica Witte AThe effects of plant-based diets on the body and the brain: a systematic reviewTransl Psychiatry.(2019 Sep 12)
    19.^Clarys P, Deliens T, Huybrechts I, Deriemaeker P, Vanaelst B, De Keyzer W, Hebbelinck M, Mullie PComparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous dietNutrients.(2014 Mar 24)
    20.^Ru-Yi Huang, Chuan-Chin Huang, Frank B Hu, Jorge E ChavarroVegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsJ Gen Intern Med.(2016 Jan)
    21.^Hana Kahleova, James McCann, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA plant-based diet in overweight adults in a 16-week randomized clinical trial: The role of dietary acid loadClin Nutr ESPEN.(2021 Aug)
    22.^Hana Kahleova, Andrea Tura, Martin Hill, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical TrialNutrients.(2018 Feb 9)
    24.^P Appleby, A Roddam, N Allen, T KeyComparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-OxfordEur J Clin Nutr.(2007 Dec)
    25.^Isabel Iguacel, María L Miguel-Berges, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Luis A Moreno, Cristina JuliánVeganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysisNutr Rev.(2019 Jan 1)
    26.^Yu-Mi Lee, Se-A Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Jung-Guk Kim, Keun-Gyu Park, Ji-Yun Jeong, Jae-Han Jeon, Ji-Yeon Shin, Duk-Hee LeeEffect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical TrialPLoS One.(2016 Jun 2)
    27.^Neal D Barnard, Joshua Cohen, David J A Jenkins, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Lise Gloede, Amber Green, Hope FerdowsianA low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 May)
    28.^Yoko Yokoyama, Neal D Barnard, Susan M Levin, Mitsuhiro WatanabeVegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysisCardiovasc Diagn Ther.(2014 Oct)
    29.^Neal D Barnard, Joshua Cohen, David J A Jenkins, Gabrielle Turner-McGrievy, Lise Gloede, Brent Jaster, Kim Seidl, Amber A Green, Stanley TalpersA low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetesDiabetes Care.(2006 Aug)
    30.^Hana Kahleova, Kitt Falk Petersen, Gerald I Shulman, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Andrea Tura, Martin Hill, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardEffect of a Low-Fat Vegan Diet on Body Weight, Insulin Sensitivity, Postprandial Metabolism, and Intramyocellular and Hepatocellular Lipid Levels in Overweight Adults: A Randomized Clinical TrialJAMA Netw Open.(2020 Nov 2)
    31.^Hana Kahleova, Rebecca Fleeman, Adela Hlozkova, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA plant-based diet in overweight individuals in a 16-week randomized clinical trial: metabolic benefits of plant proteinNutr Diabetes.(2018 Nov 2)
    32.^Karen Rees, Lena Al-Khudairy, Andrea Takeda, Saverio StrangesVegan dietary pattern for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseasesCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2021 Feb 25)
    33.^Iris Trefflich, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Romina di Giuseppe, Marcus Ståhlman, Andreas Michalsen, Alfonso Lampen, Klaus Abraham, Cornelia WeikertAssociations between Dietary Patterns and Bile Acids-Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Vegans and OmnivoresNutrients.(2019 Dec 23)
    34.^Topi Hovinen, Liisa Korkalo, Riitta Freese, Essi Skaffari, Pirjo Isohanni, Mikko Niemi, Jaakko Nevalainen, Helena Gylling, Nicola Zamboni, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Anu SuomalainenVegan diet in young children remodels metabolism and challenges the statuses of essential nutrientsEMBO Mol Med.(2021 Feb 5)
    35.^Kai Wei Lee, Hong Chuan Loh, Siew Mooi Ching, Navin Kumar Devaraj, Fan Kee HooEffects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Pressure Lowering: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential AnalysisNutrients.(2020 May 29)
    36.^Amir Abbasnezhad, Ebrahim Falahi, Michael J Gonzalez, Parivash Kavehi, Faezeh Fouladvand, Razieh ChoghakhoriEffect of Different Dietary Approaches Compared With a Regular Diet on Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisDiabetes Res Clin Pract.(2020 May)
    37.^Persio D Lopez, Eder H Cativo, Steven A Atlas, Clive RosendorffThe Effect of Vegan Diets on Blood Pressure in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsAm J Med.(2019 Jul)
    38.^K Kaartinen, K Lammi, M Hypen, M Nenonen, O Hanninen, A L RaumaVegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptomsScand J Rheumatol.(2000)
    39.^I Hafström, B Ringertz, A Spångberg, L von Zweigbergk, S Brannemark, I Nylander, J Rönnelid, L Laasonen, L KlareskogA vegan diet free of gluten improves the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: the effects on arthritis correlate with a reduction in antibodies to food antigensRheumatology (Oxford).(2001 Oct)
    40.^Ann-Charlotte Elkan, Beatrice Sjöberg, Björn Kolsrud, Bo Ringertz, Ingiäld Hafström, Johan FrostegårdGluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized studyArthritis Res Ther.(2008)
    41.^Emily A Losno, Katharina Sieferle, Federico J Armando Perez-Cueto, Christian RitzVegan Diet and the Gut Microbiota Composition in Healthy AdultsNutrients.(2021 Jul 13)
    43.^Iris Trefflich, Afraa Jabakhanji, Juliane Menzel, Michael Blaut, Andreas Michalsen, Alfonso Lampen, Klaus Abraham, Cornelia WeikertIs a vegan or a vegetarian diet associated with the microbiota composition in the gut? Results of a new cross-sectional study and systematic reviewCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2020)
    44.^Veronese N, Solmi M, Caruso MG, Giannelli G, Osella AR, Evangelou E, Maggi S, Fontana L, Stubbs B, Tzoulaki IDietary fiber and health outcomes: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analysesAm J Clin Nutr.(2018 Mar 1)
    45.^Emanuel E Canfora, Johan W Jocken, Ellen E BlaakShort-chain fatty acids in control of body weight and insulin sensitivityNat Rev Endocrinol.(2015 Oct)
    46.^Lawrence A David, Corinne F Maurice, Rachel N Carmody, David B Gootenberg, Julie E Button, Benjamin E Wolfe, Alisha V Ling, A Sloan Devlin, Yug Varma, Michael A Fischbach, Sudha B Biddinger, Rachel J Dutton, Peter J TurnbaughDiet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiomeNature.(2014 Jan 23)
    48.^Julieanna HeverPlant-Based Diets: A Physician's GuidePerm J.(Summer 2016)
    49.^Yuva Bellik, Laïd Boukraâ, Hasan A Alzahrani, Balkees A Bakhotmah, Fatiha Abdellah, Si M Hammoudi, Mokrane Iguer-OuadaMolecular mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of phytochemicals: an updateMolecules.(2012 Dec 27)
    50.^Coen Govers, Muzeyyen Berkel Kasikci, Addie A van der Sluis, Jurriaan J MesReview of the health effects of berries and their phytochemicals on the digestive and immune systemsNutr Rev.(2018 Jan 1)
    51.^Claus LeitzmannCharacteristics and Health Benefits of PhytochemicalsForsch Komplementmed.(2016)
    53.^Maryam Kebbe, Joshua R Sparks, Emily W Flanagan, Leanne M RedmanBeyond weight loss: current perspectives on the impact of calorie restriction on healthspan and lifespanExpert Rev Endocrinol Metab.(2021 May)
    54.^Carr AC, Maggini SVitamin C and Immune FunctionNutrients.(2017 Nov 3)
    57.^Rainer Hartmann, Hans MeiselFood-derived peptides with biological activity: from research to food applicationsCurr Opin Biotechnol.(2007 Apr)
    58.^Merve Bacanlı, Nurşen BaşaranImportance of antibiotic residues in animal foodFood Chem Toxicol.(2019 Mar)
    59.^P A Bertazzi, D Consonni, S Bachetti, M Rubagotti, A Baccarelli, C Zocchetti, A C PesatoriHealth effects of dioxin exposure: a 20-year mortality studyAm J Epidemiol.(2001 Jun 1)
    60.^Susanna C Larsson, Leif Bergkvist, Alicja WolkProcessed meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines and stomach cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish womenInt J Cancer.(2006 Aug 15)
    61.^Ghaffari et alConsumers’ motivations for adopting a vegan diet: A mixed-methods approachInternational Journal of Consumer Studies.(2021-09)
    63.^Simons et alVegetarianism/Veganism: A Way to Feel GoodSustainability.(2021-03)
    64.^Craig WJHealth effects of vegan dietsAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 May)
    66.^Catherine M Burgess, Eddy J Smid, Douwe van SinderenBacterial vitamin B2, B11 and B12 overproduction: An overviewInt J Food Microbiol.(2009 Jul 31)
    67.^AllenEfficacy and Safety of Vitamin B12 FortificationFood Fortification in a Globalized World, Academic Press.(2018)
    68.^Eva Greibe, Ole Nymark, Sergey N Fedosov, Christian W Heegaard, Ebba NexoDietary Intake of Vitamin B12 is Better for Restoring a Low B12 Status Than a Daily High-Dose Vitamin Pill: An Experimental Study in RatsNutrients.(2018 Aug 15)
    69.^Glenn Cardwell, Janet F Bornman, Anthony P James, Lucinda J BlackA Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin DNutrients.(2018 Oct 13)
    71.^Anna Wirz-Justice, Debra J Skene, Mirjam MünchThe relevance of daylight for humansBiochem Pharmacol.(2021 Sep)
    72.^Peter P A SmythIodine, Seaweed, and the ThyroidEur Thyroid J.(2021 Apr)
    74.^Dulce Alves Martins, Luísa Custódio, Luísa Barreira, Hugo Pereira, Radhouan Ben-Hamadou, João Varela, Khalid M Abu-SalahAlternative sources of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine microalgaeMar Drugs.(2013 Jun 27)
    75.^Bonny Burns-Whitmore, Erik Froyen, Celine Heskey, Temetra Parker, Gregorio San PabloAlpha-Linolenic and Linoleic Fatty Acids in the Vegan Diet: Do They Require Dietary Reference Intake/Adequate Intake Special Consideration?Nutrients.(2019 Oct 4)
    78.^E C Silva Junior, L H O Wadt, K E Silva, R M B Lima, K D Batista, M C Guedes, G S Carvalho, T S Carvalho, A R Reis, G Lopes, L R G GuilhermeNatural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon regionChemosphere.(2017 Dec)
    79.^AlexanderChapter 52 - SeleniumHandbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Fourth Edition), Academic Press.(2014-08)
    80.^Muhammad Abdullah, Radia T. Jamil, Fibi N. AttiaVitamin C (Ascorbic Acid).()
    81.^Raj Kishor Gupta, Shivraj Singh Gangoliya, Nand Kumar SinghReduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grainsJ Food Sci Technol.(2015 Feb)
    83.^Mairead E Kiely, Elaine K McCarthy, Áine HennessyIron, iodine and vitamin D deficiencies during pregnancy: epidemiology, risk factors and developmental impactsProc Nutr Soc.(2021 Aug)
    84.^O A Vrzhesinskaia, V M Kodentsova, V B SpirichevAbsorption of vitamin B2 from plant and animal food productsFiziol Zh.(Jan-Feb 1994)
    85.^BoschChapter 37 - RiboflavinPrinciples of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics: Fundamentals of Individualized Nutrition, Academic Press.(2019-09)
    86.^Muhammad Nadeem Aslam, Jaclynn M Kreider, Tejaswi Paruchuri, Narasimharao Bhagavathula, Marissa DaSilva, Ronald F Zernicke, Steven A Goldstein, James VaraniA mineral-rich extract from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum preserves bone structure and function in female mice on a Western-style dietCalcif Tissue Int.(2010 Apr)
    88.^Rogerson DVegan diets: practical advice for athletes and exercisersJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2017 Sep 13)
    89.^Insaf Berrazaga, Valérie Micard, Marine Gueugneau, Stéphane WalrandThe Role of the Anabolic Properties of Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Sources in Supporting Muscle Mass Maintenance: A Critical ReviewNutrients.(2019 Aug 7)
    90.^Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan LevinPosition of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian DietsJ Acad Nutr Diet.(2016 Dec)
    91.^American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of CanadaPosition of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian dietsJ Am Diet Assoc.(2003 Jun)
    92.^C Agnoli, L Baroni, I Bertini, S Ciappellano, A Fabbri, M Papa, N Pellegrini, R Sbarbati, M L Scarino, V Siani, S SieriPosition paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human NutritionNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2017 Dec)
    93.^Susana Redecilla Ferreiro, Ana Moráis López, José Manuel Moreno Villares, en representación del Comité de Nutrición y Lactancia Materna de la AEP, AutoresPosition paper on vegetarian diets in infants and children. Committee on Nutrition and Breastfeeding of the Spanish Paediatric AssociationAn Pediatr (Engl Ed).(2020 May)
    94.^Elias E Mazokopakis, Michael I LiontirisCommentary: Health Concerns of Brazil Nut ConsumptionJ Altern Complement Med.(2018 Jan)
    96.^Pascal MüllerVegan Diet in Young ChildrenNestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser.(2020)
    97.^Richter et alVegan Diet. Position of the German Nutrition Society (DGE)Ernahrungs Umschau.(2016-06)
    98.^Michelle A Kominiarek, Priya RajanNutrition Recommendations in Pregnancy and LactationMed Clin North Am.(2016 Nov)
    99.^Giorgia Sebastiani, Ana Herranz Barbero, Cristina Borrás-Novell, Miguel Alsina Casanova, Victoria Aldecoa-Bilbao, Vicente Andreu-Fernández, Mireia Pascual Tutusaus, Silvia Ferrero Martínez, María Dolores Gómez Roig, Oscar García-AlgarThe Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diet during Pregnancy on the Health of Mothers and OffspringNutrients.(2019 Mar 6)
    101.^Francesca Pistollato, Sandra Sumalla Cano, Iñaki Elio, Manuel Masias Vergara, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio BattinoPlant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible ShortcomingsAdv Nutr.(2015 Sep 15)
    102.^Mary K BargerMaternal nutrition and perinatal outcomesJ Midwifery Womens Health.(Nov-Dec 2010)
    103.^Daisy Bivi, Teresa Di Chio, Francesca Geri, Riccardo Morganti, Silvia Goggi, Luciana Baroni, Maria Gloria Mumolo, Nicola de Bortoli, Diego Giampietro Peroni, Santino Marchi, Massimo BelliniRaising Children on a Vegan Diet: Parents' Opinion on Problems in Everyday LifeNutrients.(2021 May 25)
    104.^Jalpa K. Patel, Audra S. RousterInfant Nutrition Requirements and Options.()
    105.^Ferdinand Haschke, Christoph Binder, Mercedes Huber-Dangl, Nadja HaidenEarly-Life Nutrition, Growth Trajectories, and Long-Term OutcomeNestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser.(2019)
    106.^Harold Alderman, Jere R Behrman, Paul Glewwe, Lia Fernald, Susan Walker, Donald A P Bundy, Nilanthi de Silva, Susan Horton, Dean T. Jamison, George C. PattonEvidence of Impact of Interventions on Growth and Development during Early and Middle Childhood.()
    107.^Juan A Rivera, Christine Hotz, Teresa González-Cossío, Lynnette Neufeld, Armando García-GuerraThe effect of micronutrient deficiencies on child growth: a review of results from community-based supplementation trialsJ Nutr.(2003 Nov)
    108.^Stine Weder, Morwenna Hoffmann, Katja Becker, Ute Alexy, Markus KellerEnergy, Macronutrient Intake, and Anthropometrics of Vegetarian, Vegan, and Omnivorous Children (1⁻3 Years) in Germany (VeChi Diet Study)Nutrients.(2019 Apr 12)
    109.^Ute Alexy, Morwenna Fischer, Stine Weder, Alfred Längler, Andreas Michalsen, Andreas Sputtek, Markus KellerNutrient Intake and Status of German Children and Adolescents Consuming Vegetarian, Vegan or Omnivore Diets: Results of the VeChi Youth StudyNutrients.(2021 May 18)
    110.^Małgorzata A Desmond, Jakub G Sobiecki, Maciej Jaworski, Paweł Płudowski, Jolanta Antoniewicz, Meghan K Shirley, Simon Eaton, Janusz Książyk, Mario Cortina-Borja, Bianca De Stavola, Mary Fewtrell, Jonathan C K WellsGrowth, body composition, and cardiovascular and nutritional risk of 5- to 10-y-old children consuming vegetarian, vegan, or omnivore dietsAm J Clin Nutr.(2021 Jun 1)
    111.^Donna K Arnett, Roger S Blumenthal, Michelle A Albert, Andrew B Buroker, Zachary D Goldberger, Ellen J Hahn, Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, Amit Khera, Donald Lloyd-Jones, J William McEvoy, Erin D Michos, Michael D Miedema, Daniel Muñoz, Sidney C Smith Jr, Salim S Virani, Kim A Williams Sr, Joseph Yeboah, Boback Ziaeian2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice GuidelinesCirculation.(2019 Sep 10)
    112.^Silverman MG, Ference BA, Im K, Wiviott SD, Giugliano RP, Grundy SM, Braunwald E, Sabatine MSAssociation Between Lowering LDL-C and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Among Different Therapeutic Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisJAMA.(2016 Sep 27)
    113.^Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R, Prospective Studies CollaborationAge-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studiesLancet.(2002 Dec 14)
    114.^Jeenan Kaiser, Kim R van Daalen, Arjun Thayyil, Mafalda Tasso de Almeida Ribeiro Reis Cocco, Daniela Caputo, Clare Oliver-WilliamsA Systematic Review of the Association Between Vegan Diets and Risk of Cardiovascular DiseaseJ Nutr.(2021 Apr 8)
    115.^Tammy Y N Tong, Paul N Appleby, Kathryn E Bradbury, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Ruth C Travis, Robert Clarke, Timothy J KeyRisks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians over 18 years of follow-up: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford studyBMJ.(2019 Sep 4)
    116.^Timothy J Key, Paul N Appleby, Francesca L Crowe, Kathryn E Bradbury, Julie A Schmidt, Ruth C TravisCancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegansAm J Clin Nutr.(2014 Jul)
    118.^Esther Molina-Montes, Elena Salamanca-Fernández, Belén Garcia-Villanova, Maria José SánchezThe Impact of Plant-Based Dietary Patterns on Cancer-Related Outcomes: A Rapid Review and Meta-AnalysisNutrients.(2020 Jul 6)
    119.^Jason A Penniecook-Sawyers, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Jing Fan, Larry Beeson, Synnove Knutsen, Patti Herring, Gary E FraserVegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk populationBr J Nutr.(2016 May 28)
    120.^Martina Recalde, Veronica Davila-Batista, Yesika Díaz, Michael Leitzmann, Isabelle Romieu, Heinz Freisling, Talita Duarte-SallesBody mass index and waist circumference in relation to the risk of 26 types of cancer: a prospective cohort study of 3.5 million adults in SpainBMC Med.(2021 Jan 14)
    121.^Sepideh Soltani, Shima Abdollahi, Dagfinn Aune, Ahmad JayediBody mass index and cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studiesSci Rep.(2021 Jan 28)
    122.^Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept of Health and Human ServicesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020..(2020)
    124.^James P Boyle, Theodore J Thompson, Edward W Gregg, Lawrence E Barker, David F WilliamsonProjection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalencePopul Health Metr.(2010 Oct 22)
    125.^Meghan A Jardine, Hana Kahleova, Susan M Levin, Zeeshan Ali, Caroline B Trapp, Neal D BarnardPerspective: Plant-Based Eating Pattern for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Treatment: Efficacy, Mechanisms, and Practical ConsiderationsAdv Nutr.(2021 Dec 1)
    126.^Serena Tonstad, Terry Butler, Ru Yan, Gary E FraserType of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetesDiabetes Care.(2009 May)
    127.^S Tonstad, K Stewart, K Oda, M Batech, R P Herring, G E FraserVegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2013 Apr)
    128.^Yoko Yokoyama, Susan M Levin, Neal D BarnardAssociation between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysisNutr Rev.(2017 Sep 1)
    130.^Neal D Barnard, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Liz Brandon, Minh Nguyen, Andrea Goergen, Taylor Horne, Gabriel F do Nascimento, Kundanika Lakkadi, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Hana KahleovaA Mediterranean Diet and Low-Fat Vegan Diet to Improve Body Weight and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized, Cross-over TrialJ Am Coll Nutr.(2021 Feb 5)
    131.^Marta Klementova, Lenka Thieme, Martin Haluzik, Renata Pavlovicova, Martin Hill, Terezie Pelikanova, Hana KahleovaA Plant-Based Meal Increases Gastrointestinal Hormones and Satiety More Than an Energy- and Macronutrient-Matched Processed-Meat Meal in T2D, Obese, and Healthy Men: A Three-Group Randomized Crossover StudyNutrients.(2019 Jan 12)
    133.^Manuel Calcagno, Hana Kahleova, Jihad Alwarith, Nora N Burgess, Rosendo A Flores, Melissa L Busta, Neal D BarnardThe Thermic Effect of Food: A ReviewJ Am Coll Nutr.(2019 Aug)
    134.^Edoardo Capuano, Anja E M JanssenFood Matrix and Macronutrient DigestionAnnu Rev Food Sci Technol.(2021 Mar 25)
    135.^Claire Holland, Peter Ryden, Cathrina H Edwards, Myriam M-L GrundyPlant Cell Walls: Impact on Nutrient Bioaccessibility and DigestibilityFoods.(2020 Feb 16)
    136.^Michael GregerA Whole Food Plant-Based Diet Is Effective for Weight Loss: The EvidenceAm J Lifestyle Med.(2020 Apr 3)
    137.^Ann Reed MangelsBone nutrients for vegetariansAm J Clin Nutr.(2014 Jul)
    138.^Katherine L TuckerVegetarian diets and bone statusAm J Clin Nutr.(2014 Jul)
    139.^Vichuda Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Donna L Thorpe, Raymond Knutsen, W Larry Beeson, Gary E Fraser, Synnove F KnutsenLegumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2Public Health Nutr.(2014 Oct)
    140.^Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium, A Catharine Ross, Christine L Taylor, Ann L Yaktine, Heather B Del ValleDietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.()
    141.^Suzanne C Ho, Georgia S Guldan, Jean Woo, Ruby Yu, Mandy M Tse, Aprille Sham, Jack ChengA prospective study of the effects of 1-year calcium-fortified soy milk supplementation on dietary calcium intake and bone health in Chinese adolescent girls aged 14 to 16Osteoporos Int.(2005 Dec)
    142.^Drazen Kostelac, Gerhard Rechkemmer, Karlis BrivibaPhytoestrogens modulate binding response of estrogen receptors alpha and beta to the estrogen response elementJ Agric Food Chem.(2003 Dec 17)
    145.^Divi RL, Chang HC, Doerge DRAnti-thyroid isoflavones from soybean: isolation, characterization, and mechanisms of actionBiochem Pharmacol.(1997 Nov 15)
    147.^White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, Masaki K, Hardman J, Nelson J, Davis D, Markesbery WBrain aging and midlife tofu consumptionJ Am Coll Nutr.(2000 Apr)
    148.^Hogervorst E, Sadjimim T, Yesufu A, Kreager P, Rahardjo TBHigh tofu intake is associated with worse memory in elderly Indonesian men and womenDement Geriatr Cogn Disord.(2008)
    149.^Hamilton-Reeves JM, Vazquez G, Duval SJ, Phipps WR, Kurzer MS, Messina MJClinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysisFertil Steril.(2010 Aug)
    150.^Katharine E Reed, Juliana Camargo, Jill Hamilton-Reeves, Mindy Kurzer, Mark MessinaNeither soy nor isoflavone intake affects male reproductive hormones: An expanded and updated meta-analysis of clinical studiesReprod Toxicol.(2021 Mar)
    151.^Jemiliat Otun, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Linda Östlundh, Stephen L Atkin, Thozhukat SathyapalanSystematic Review and Meta-analysis on the Effect of Soy on Thyroid FunctionSci Rep.(2019 Mar 8)
    152.^Liqin Zhao, Roberta Diaz BrintonWHI and WHIMS follow-up and human studies of soy isoflavones on cognitionExpert Rev Neurother.(2007 Nov)
    153.^Cheng PF, Chen JJ, Zhou XY, Ren YF, Huang W, Zhou JJ, Xie PDo soy isoflavones improve cognitive function in postmenopausal women? A meta-analysisMenopause.(2015 Feb)
    154.^Chendi Cui, Rahel L Birru, Beth E Snitz, Masafumi Ihara, Chikage Kakuta, Brian J Lopresti, Howard J Aizenstein, Oscar L Lopez, Chester A Mathis, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Lewis H Kuller, Akira SekikawaEffects of Soy Isoflavones on Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsNutr Rev.(2020 Feb 1)
    155.^Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Alireza M Manuchehri, Natalie J Thatcher, Alan S Rigby, Tom Chapman, Eric S Kilpatrick, Stephen L AtkinThe effect of soy phytoestrogen supplementation on thyroid status and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, crossover studyJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2011 May)
    156.^Stefania Squadrone, Paola Brizio, Alessandra Griglione, Stefano Falsetti, Antonio Curcio, Maria Cesarina AbeteAluminium occurrence in plant feed from Northwestern ItalyJ Trace Elem Med Biol.(2021 Dec)
    157.^J L GregerDietary and other sources of aluminium intakeCiba Found Symp.(1992)
    158.^Stahl et alAluminium content of selected foods and food products.Environ Sci Eur.(2011-11)
    159.^Zengjin Wang, Xiaomin Wei, Junlin Yang, Jinning Suo, Jingyi Chen, Xianchen Liu, Xiulan ZhaoChronic exposure to aluminum and risk of Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysisNeurosci Lett.(2016 Jan 1)
    160.^Lei Cao, Lan Tan, Hui-Fu Wang, Teng Jiang, Xi-Chen Zhu, Huan Lu, Meng-Shan Tan, Jin-Tai YuDietary Patterns and Risk of Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort StudiesMol Neurobiol.(2016 Nov)
    161.^Theodore I LidskyIs the Aluminum Hypothesis dead?J Occup Environ Med.(2014 May)
    163.^Daniel Davey, Shane Malone, Brendan EganCase Study: Transition to a Vegan Diet in an Elite Male Gaelic Football PlayerSports (Basel).(2021 Jan 5)
    165.^Josefine Nebl, Sven Haufe, Julian Eigendorf, Paulina Wasserfurth, Uwe Tegtbur, Andreas HahnExercise capacity of vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivorous recreational runnersJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2019 May 20)
    166.^Pfeiffer et alSprint Interval Exercise Performance in VegansJournal of the American College of Nutrition.(2020-10)
    167.^Guy Hajj Boutros, Marie-Anne Landry-Duval, Mauricio Garzon, Antony D KarelisIs a vegan diet detrimental to endurance and muscle strength?Eur J Clin Nutr.(2020 Nov)
    168.^Hana Kahleova, Emilie Rembert, Jihad Alwarith, Willy N Yonas, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Melissa Agnello, Robynne Chutkan, Neal D BarnardEffects of a Low-Fat Vegan Diet on Gut Microbiota in Overweight Individuals and Relationships with Body Weight, Body Composition, and Insulin Sensitivity. A Randomized Clinical TrialNutrients.(2020 Sep 24)
    169.^Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C KashyapIrritable bowel syndrome: a gut microbiota-related disorder?Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol.(2017 Jan 1)
    170.^Xiang Jun Shen, John F Rawls, Thomas Randall, Lauren Burcal, Caroline N Mpande, Natascha Jenkins, Biljana Jovov, Zaid Abdo, Robert S Sandler, Temitope O KekuMolecular characterization of mucosal adherent bacteria and associations with colorectal adenomasGut Microbes.(May-Jun 2010)
    171.^Ahmedin Jemal, Freddie Bray, Melissa M Center, Jacques Ferlay, Elizabeth Ward, David FormanGlobal cancer statisticsCA Cancer J Clin.(Mar-Apr 2011)
    172.^C P Tamboli, C Neut, P Desreumaux, J F ColombelDysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseaseGut.(2004 Jan)
    173.^Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Knutsen S, Beeson WL, Fraser GEVegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2JAMA Intern Med.(2013 Jul 8)
    174.^Tao Huang, Bin Yang, Jusheng Zheng, Guipu Li, Mark L Wahlqvist, Duo LiCardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic reviewAnn Nutr Metab.(2012)
    175.^Paul N Appleby, Francesca L Crowe, Kathryn E Bradbury, Ruth C Travis, Timothy J KeyMortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United KingdomAm J Clin Nutr.(2016 Jan)
    176.^Mihrshahi S, Ding D, Gale J, Allman-Farinelli M, Banks E, Bauman AEVegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up StudyPrev Med.(2017 Apr)
    179.^D A Snowdon, R L Phillips, G E FraserMeat consumption and fatal ischemic heart diseasePrev Med.(1984 Sep)
    180.^G E Fraser, J Sabaté, W L Beeson, T M StrahanA possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health StudyArch Intern Med.(1992 Jul)
    181.^Kristina Norman, Susanne KlausVeganism, aging and longevity: new insight into old conceptsCurr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care.(2020 Mar)
    182.^Emily W Flanagan, Jasper Most, Jacob T Mey, Leanne M RedmanCalorie Restriction and Aging in HumansAnnu Rev Nutr.(2020 Sep 23)
    183.^Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu KauppinenRegulation of longevity by FGF21: Interaction between energy metabolism and stress responsesAgeing Res Rev.(2017 Aug)
    184.^Micaela C Karlsen, Gail Rogers, Akari Miki, Alice H Lichtenstein, Sara C Folta, Christina D Economos, Paul F Jacques, Kara A Livingston, Nicola M McKeownTheoretical Food and Nutrient Composition of Whole-Food Plant-Based and Vegan Diets Compared to Current Dietary RecommendationsNutrients.(2019 Mar 14)
    185.^Dorothee Volkert, Anne Marie Beck, Tommy Cederholm, Alfonso Cruz-Jentoft, Sabine Goisser, Lee Hooper, Eva Kiesswetter, Marcello Maggio, Agathe Raynaud-Simon, Cornel C Sieber, Lubos Sobotka, Dieneke van Asselt, Rainer Wirth, Stephan C BischoffESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition and hydration in geriatricsClin Nutr.(2019 Feb)
    186.^Deutz NE, Bauer JM, Barazzoni R, Biolo G, Boirie Y, Bosy-Westphal A, Cederholm T, Cruz-Jentoft A, Krznariç Z, Nair KS, Singer P, Teta D, Tipton K, Calder PCProtein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: recommendations from the ESPEN Expert GroupClin Nutr.(2014 Dec)
    187.^Wu GDietary protein intake and human healthFood Funct.(2016 Mar)
    188.^Michael J. Lopez, Shamim S. MohiuddinBiochemistry, Essential Amino Acids.()
    189.^François Mariotti, Christopher D GardnerDietary Protein and Amino Acids in Vegetarian Diets-A ReviewNutrients.(2019 Nov 4)
    190.^Stefan H M Gorissen, Julie J R Crombag, Joan M G Senden, W A Huub Waterval, Jörgen Bierau, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van LoonProtein Content and Amino Acid Composition of Commercially Available Plant-Based Protein IsolatesAmino Acids.(2018 Dec)
    191.^J A Schmidt, S Rinaldi, A Scalbert, P Ferrari, D Achaintre, M J Gunter, P N Appleby, T J Key, R C TravisPlasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohortEur J Clin Nutr.(2016 Mar)
    193.^BealsPotatoes, Nutrition and HealthAmerican Journal of Potato Research.(2019)
    194.^Hoffman JR, Falvo MJProtein - Which is Best?J Sports Sci Med.(2004 Sep 1)
    195.^Young VR, Pellett PLPlant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutritionAm J Clin Nutr.(1994 May)
    196.^Amanda Gomes Almeida Sá, Yara Maria Franco Moreno, Bruno Augusto Mattar CarciofiFood processing for the improvement of plant proteins digestibilityCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2020)
    199.^G Sarwar Gilani, Kevin A Cockell, Estatira SepehrEffects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foodsJ AOAC Int.(May-Jun 2005)
    201.^Steven R Hertzler, Jacqueline C Lieblein-Boff, Mary Weiler, Courtney AllgeierPlant Proteins: Assessing Their Nutritional Quality and Effects on Health and Physical FunctionNutrients.(2020 Nov 30)
    202.^Wilfredo D Mansilla, Christopher P F Marinangeli, Cara Cargo-Froom, Adam Franczyk, James D House, Rajavel Elango, Daniel A Columbus, Elijah Kiarie, Mike Rogers, Anna K ShovellerComparison of methodologies used to define the protein quality of human foods and support regulatory claimsAppl Physiol Nutr Metab.(2020 Sep)
    205.^Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United NationsDietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. Report of an FAO Expert Consultation.(2013)