Peak power output (PPO)

Last Updated: January 10, 2022

PPO is a measure of the maximum force exerted at a certain velocity, generally within a time window of 5–30 seconds.


PPO is a measure of the maximum force exerted at a certain velocity, generally within a time window of 5–30 seconds.

People’s PPO is often tested by having them cycle as fast as possible on a cycle ergometer. Once they surpass the flywheel’s inertia (whether state of rest or uniform motion), a load is applied and data is collected.[1][2]

How much of the energy expended during the test derives from aerobic metabolism depends on the duration of the test — the longer the test is, the more aerobic it is.[3] If the test lasts 30 seconds, aerobic metabolism can account for about 20% of the expended energy.[4]

Dominant energy system during continuous exercise

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  1. ^Ozgur Ozkaya, Gorkem Aybars Balci, Hakan As, Emre VardarliThe Test-Retest Reliability of New Generation Power Indices of Wingate All-Out TestSports (Basel).(2018 Apr 7)
  2. ^Driss T, Vandewalle HThe measurement of maximal (anaerobic) power output on a cycle ergometer: a critical reviewBiomed Res Int.(2013)
  3. ^Matthew W Bundle, Peter G WeyandSprint exercise performance: does metabolic power matter?Exerc Sport Sci Rev.(2012 Jul)
  4. ^Baker JS, McCormick MC, Robergs RAInteraction among Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Energy Systems during Intense ExerciseJ Nutr Metab.(2010)
Examine Database References
  1. Panax Ginseng (Korean Ginseng) - Hermann-J Engels, Mariane M Fahlman, John C WirthEffects of ginseng on secretory IgA, performance, and recovery from interval exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2003 Apr)
  2. Panax Ginseng (Korean Ginseng) - H J Engels, I Kolokouri, T J Cieslak 2nd, J C WirthEffects of ginseng supplementation on supramaximal exercise performance and short-term recoveryJ Strength Cond Res.(2001 Aug)
  3. Vitamin D - Amirhossein Ramezani Ahmadi, Majid Mohammadshahi, Aliakbar Alizadeh, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Alireza JahanshahiEffects of vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 weeks on serum levels of anabolic hormones, anaerobic power, and aerobic performance in active male subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialEur J Sport Sci.(2020 Nov)
  4. Creatine - Damien Gras, Charlotte Lanhers, Reza Bagheri, Ukadike Chris Ugbolue, Emmanuel Coudeyre, Bruno Pereira, Marek Zak, Jean-Baptiste Bouillon-Minois, Frédéric DutheilCreatine supplementation and VO 2 max: a systematic review and meta-analysisCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2021 Dec 3)
  5. Whey Protein - Lam FC, Bukhsh A, Rehman H, Waqas MK, Shahid N, Khaliel AM, Elhanish A, Karoud M, Telb A, Khan TMEfficacy and Safety of Whey Protein Supplements on Vital Sign and Physical Performance Among Athletes: A Network Meta-Analysis.Front Pharmacol.(2019)