Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Last Updated: November 10, 2023

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic disease of the lungs that involves airway damage and blockage that worsens over time. The progressively worsening airway blockage causes the main symptoms of COPD: difficulty breathing, cough, and mucus production. While the most common cause of COPD is smoking, other causes can include significant exposure to air pollutants, frequent respiratory infections, and untreated asthma. Standard COPD treatments include use of specific inhalers to relax and open up the airways.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) falls under theLungs & BreathingandHealthy Aging & Longevitycategories.

What is COPD?

COPD is a chronic condition which occurs due to irreversible damage to the lungs with common symptoms such as trouble breathing and cough.[1]

Normal lungs have many small stretchy air sacs that inflate upon inhalation and deflate upon exhalation. With COPD, less air can enter the lungs because air sacs have damaged walls and are less stretchy (this is called emphysema); and the airway becomes inflamed triggering cough and more mucus production (this is called chronic bronchitis). Most people have a COPD with both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, with variable severity.[2]

What are the main signs and symptoms of COPD?

Symptoms of COPD vary depending on the severity of the disease. The most common symptoms include shortness of breath and wheezing, chronic cough (often with mucus), and fatigue. COPD is often associated with frequent infections of the airways and sometimes with a blue tint of lips or fingernails (due to a lack of oxygen).[1] The systemic inflammation from COPD can also cause symptoms outside the lungs. This can manifest as unintentional weight loss, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, increased risk of cardiovascular disease.[3]

How is COPD diagnosed?

COPD is initially suspected when people present with long-term difficulty breathing and cough along with a risk factor such as smoking or exposure to pollution.[1] Healthcare providers diagnose COPD based on signs and symptoms, personal and family medical histories, and also test results (lung tests, imaging and blood tests).[2] Talk to your healthcare provider if you think you have COPD; do not self-diagnose.

What are some of the main medical treatments for COPD?

After COPD is diagnosed, the mainstay of treatment includes stopping smoking (if currently smoking) and the use of inhalers (bronchodilators) to manage symptoms and prevent exacerbations. The types of inhalers and their frequency of use depends on the individual person’s severity of symptoms and number of exacerbations.[1]

Have any supplements been studied for COPD?

Not many supplements have been studied for COPD, and there’s no strong evidence to support their efficacy. Beetroot juice, chlorella, honey, and black seed (black seed) oil are examples of supplements that have been studied for COPD.[4]

How could diet affect COPD?

A diet high in antioxidant-rich fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of developing COPD, though it is unclear whether this diet will help to manage symptoms. COPD is associated with worsened outcomes in malnourished individuals, such as muscle wasting and reduced exercise capacity, which leads to worsened quality of life and increased mortality risk, so it is especially important to maintain a healthy diet in those with COPD.[4]

Are there any other treatments for COPD?

Exercise is typically recommended to better manage COPD symptoms and progression. It seems that the type of exercise doesn’t matter as much as sticking to a regular exercise program.[5][6]

What causes COPD?

COPD is usually caused by long-term exposure to irritants that damage your lungs and airways. In the US, cigarette smoke is the main cause. Inhaling other types of smoke (pipe, cigar, biomass fuel, etc), pollution, and chemical fumes can also cause COPD. Also, some people have a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency which makes them more likely to sustain lung damage from pollution and smoke and sometimes lead to early-onset COPD.[7]

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  2. ^The content of this page was partially adapted from MedlinePlus of the National Library of Medicine
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  4. ^Einar Furulund, Mitra Bemanian, Nina Berggren, Tesfaye Madebo, Sara Hydle Rivedal, Torgeir Gilje Lid, Lars Thore FadnesEffects of Nutritional Interventions in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled TrialsInt J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis.(2021 Nov 17)
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  13. ^Baldrick FR, Elborn JS, Woodside JV, Treacy K, Bradley JM, Patterson CC, Schock BC, Ennis M, Young IS, McKinley MCEffect of fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative stress and inflammation in COPD: a randomised controlled trial.Eur Respir J.(2012-Jun)
  14. ^Sugawara K, Takahashi H, Kashiwagura T, Yamada K, Yanagida S, Homma M, Dairiki K, Sasaki H, Kawagoshi A, Satake M, Shioya TEffect of anti-inflammatory supplementation with whey peptide and exercise therapy in patients with COPD.Respir Med.(2012-Nov)
  15. ^Ahnfeldt-Mollerup P, Hey H, Johansen C, Kristensen S, Brix Lindskov J, Jensahnfeldt-Mollerupen CThe effect of protein supplementation on quality of life, physical function, and muscle strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Eur J Phys Rehabil Med.(2015-Aug)
  16. ^Constantin D, Menon MK, Houchen-Wolloff L, Morgan MD, Singh SJ, Greenhaff P, Steiner MCSkeletal muscle molecular responses to resistance training and dietary supplementation in COPD.Thorax.(2013-Jul)
  17. ^Salvi SS, Barnes PJChronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers.Lancet.(2009-Aug-29)
Examine Database References
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  11. COPD Symptoms - Huang C, Kuo S, Lin L, Yang YThe efficacy of -acetylcysteine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a meta-analysis.Ther Adv Respir Dis.(2023)
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  17. Uric Acid - Abdollahi S, Vajdi M, Meshkini F, Vasmehjani AA, Sangsefidi ZS, Clark CCT, Soltani SResveratrol may mildly improve renal function in the general adult population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.Nutr Res.(2023-May)
  18. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) - Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Saeed Aslani, Danyal Imani, Bahman Razi, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Amirhossein SahebkarEffect of resveratrol on C-reactive protein: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsPhytother Res.(2021 Dec)
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