Anxiety Symptoms

Last Updated: April 28, 2022

Anxiety is characterized by excessive tension and worry. Unlike fear, it is persistent and future oriented. There are many types of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety, social anxiety, phobias, and panic disorder.

What is anxiety?

Anxiety, defined by the American Psychological Association (APA), is an emotion characterized by apprehension and bodily symptoms of tension and the anticipation of impending danger.[1][2] In anxiety disorders, the feelings of fear, dread, and uneasiness are persistent and can be overwhelming. Moreover, the intensity of these feelings can increase over time and interfere with normal daily activities.

What are the main signs and symptoms of anxiety?
  • Behavior changes such as avoiding previously normal activities
  • Anxious thoughts or beliefs that are hard to control and do not go away or improve over time.
  • Pounding or rapid heartbeat
  • Aches and pains
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
How is anxiety diagnosed?

Anxiety is diagnosed with a psychological evaluation performed by a clinician.[2] The psychological evaluation will typically be based on diagnostic criteria set by a publication such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; used in the United States) or the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD; used by the World Health Organization).

What are some of the main medical treatments for anxiety?

Antianxiety medications like beta-blockers and antidepressants are commonly used either alone or in conjunction with therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) works well for many anxiety disorders, especially in combination with drugs.[2]

Have any supplements been studied for anxiety?

While they are not a cure-all, supplements such as magnesium, lavender, kava, saffron, ashwagandha,and inositol have good evidence for dampening anxiety severity to a moderate extent.

What's the connection between diet and anxiety?

Compared to typically less-healthy diets such as the Western diet, Mediterranean-style and vegan diets have some evidence for their ability to improve mood, although more research is necessary to confirm this.[3]

Are there any other treatments for anxiety?

Some evidence shows that meditation can reduce anxiety symptoms, [4] particularly among anxious individuals without diagnosed disorders.[5] High-intensity aerobic exercise and resistance training may be effective for treating anxiety disorders.[6][7] Additionally, binaural beats and cannabidiol have both been studied for anxiety-related outcomes and seem to provide modest benefits.

What causes anxiety?

The causes of anxiety disorders are complex, and risk factors can differ by the type of anxiety (e.g., separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic). Genetics, environment, and brain biology can all play a role. Generally speaking, exposure to traumatic or highly stressful events, a family history of anxiety disorders, certain health conditions (e.g., thyroid dysfunction, arrhythmias), and certain personality traits (e.g., excessive shyness) are all associated with an increased risk of having anxiety.

Examine Database: Anxiety Symptoms
What works and what doesn't?

Unlock the full potential of Examine

Get started

Don't miss out on the latest research

References
Examine Database References
  1. Saffron - Amir Ghaderi, Omid Asbaghi, Željko Reiner, Fariba Kolahdooz, Elaheh Amirani, Hamed Mirzaei, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Parisa Maleki Dana, Zatollah AsemiThe effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on mental health parameters and C-reactive protein: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trialsComplement Ther Med.(2020 Jan)
  2. Ashwagandha - Andrade C, Aswath A, Chaturvedi SK, Srinivasa M, Raguram RA double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of withania somniferaIndian J Psychiatry.(2000 Jul)
  3. Saffron - A Ghajar, S M Neishabouri, N Velayati, L Jahangard, N Matinnia, M Haghighi, A Ghaleiha, M Afarideh, S Salimi, A Meysamie, S AkhondzadehCrocus sativus L. versus Citalopram in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder with Anxious Distress: A Double-Blind, Controlled Clinical TrialPharmacopsychiatry.(2017 Jul)
  4. Cannabidiol (CBD) - Linares IM, Zuardi AW, Pereira LC, Queiroz RH, Mechoulam R, Guimarães FS, Crippa JACannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking testBraz J Psychiatry.(2019 Jan-Feb)
  5. Curcumin - Esmaily H, Sahebkar A, Iranshahi M, Ganjali S, Mohammadi A, Ferns G, Ghayour-Mobarhan MAn investigation of the effects of curcumin on anxiety and depression in obese individuals: A randomized controlled trialChin J Integr Med.(2015 May)
  6. Iron - Vaucher P, Druais PL, Waldvogel S, Favrat BEffect of iron supplementation on fatigue in nonanemic menstruating women with low ferritin: a randomized controlled trialCMAJ.(2012 Aug 7)
  7. Binaural Beats - B K Isik, A Esen, B Büyükerkmen, A Kilinç, D MenziletogluEffectiveness of binaural beats in reducing preoperative dental anxietyBr J Oral Maxillofac Surg.(2017 Jul)
  8. Cannabidiol (CBD) - Hundal H, Lister R, Evans N, Antley A, Englund A, Murray RM, Freeman D, Morrison PDThe effects of cannabidiol on persecutory ideation and anxiety in a high trait paranoid groupJ Psychopharmacol.(2018 Mar)
  9. Inositol - Gelber D, Levine J, Belmaker RHEffect of inositol on bulimia nervosa and binge eatingInt J Eat Disord.(2001 Apr)
  10. Theanine - Shinsuke Hidese, Shintaro Ogawa, Miho Ota, Ikki Ishida, Zenta Yasukawa, Makoto Ozeki, Hiroshi KunugiEffects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled TrialNutrients.(2019 Oct 3)
  11. Kava - Lehrl SClinical efficacy of kava extract WS 1490 in sleep disturbances associated with anxiety disorders. Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trialJ Affect Disord.(2004 Feb)
  12. Saffron - Jafarnia N, et alEffect of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as an Add-On Therapy to Sertraline in Mild to Moderate Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled TrialArch Neurosci.()
  13. Gotu Kola - Jana U, Sur TK, Maity LN, Debnath PK, Bhattacharyya DA clinical study on the management of generalized anxiety disorder with Centella asiaticaNepal Med Coll J.(2010 Mar)
  14. Spirulina - Sajjad Moradi, Mehdi Zobeiri, Awat Feizi, Cain C T Clark, Mohammad Hassan EntezariThe effects of spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation on anthropometric indices, blood pressure, sleep quality, mental health, fatigue status and quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis: A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trialInt J Clin Pract.(2021 Jun 9)
  15. Vitamin E - Dadkhah H, Ebrahimi E, Fathizadeh NEvaluating the effects of vitamin D and vitamin E supplement on premenstrual syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trialIran J Nurs Midwifery Res.(2016 Mar-Apr)
  16. Cannabidiol (CBD) - Zuardi AW, Rodrigues NP, Silva AL, Bernardo SA, Hallak JEC, Guimarães FS, Crippa JASInverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real LifeFront Pharmacol.(2017 May 11)
  17. Kanna - Terburg D, Syal S, Rosenberger LA, Heany S, Phillips N, Gericke N, Stein DJ, van Honk JAcute effects of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin), a dual 5-HT reuptake and PDE4 inhibitor, in the human amygdala and its connection to the hypothalamusNeuropsychopharmacology.(2013 Dec)
  18. Fish Oil - Behboudi-Gandevani S, Hariri FZ, Moghaddam-Banaem LThe effect of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on premenstrual syndrome and health-related quality of life: a randomized clinical trialJ Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol.(2018 Dec)
  19. Maca - Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska LBeneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen contentMenopause.(2008 Nov-Dec)
  20. Nicotine - Kobiella A, Ulshöfer DE, Vollmert C, Vollstädt-Klein S, Bühler M, Esslinger C, Smolka MNNicotine increases neural response to unpleasant stimuli and anxiety in non-smokersAddict Biol.(2011 Apr)
  21. Bacopa Monnieri - Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T, Nathan PJThe chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjectsPsychopharmacology (Berl).(2001 Aug)
  22. Binaural Beats - R Padmanabhan, A J Hildreth, D LawsA prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgeryAnaesthesia.(2005 Sep)
  23. Curcumin - Panahi Y, Badeli R, Karami GR, Sahebkar AInvestigation of the efficacy of adjunctive therapy with bioavailability-boosted curcuminoids in major depressive disorderPhytother Res.(2015 Jan)
  24. Cannabidiol (CBD) - Zuardi AW, Shirakawa I, Finkelfarb E, Karniol IGAction of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjectsPsychopharmacology (Berl).(1982)
  25. Kava - Connor KM, Davidson JRA placebo-controlled study of Kava kava in generalized anxiety disorderInt Clin Psychopharmacol.(2002 Jul)
  26. Vegan Diet - Ulka Agarwal, Suruchi Mishra, Jia Xu, Susan Levin, Joseph Gonzales, Neal D BarnardA multicenter randomized controlled trial of a nutrition intervention program in a multiethnic adult population in the corporate setting reduces depression and anxiety and improves quality of life: the GEICO studyAm J Health Promot.(Mar-Apr 2015)
  27. Valerian - Andreatini R, Sartori VA, Seabra ML, Leite JREffect of valepotriates (valerian extract) in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot studyPhytother Res.(2002 Nov)
  28. Bitter orange - Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Keith SC, Keith PL, Miller H, Kaats GREffects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changesInt J Med Sci.(2011 Apr 28)
  29. Melatonin - Rimmele U, Spillmann M, Bärtschi C, Wolf OT, Weber CS, Ehlert U, Wirtz PHMelatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone releasePsychopharmacology (Berl).(2009 Mar)
  30. Inositol - Palatnik A, Frolov K, Fux M, Benjamin JDouble-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorderJ Clin Psychopharmacol.(2001 Jun)
  31. Lemon Balm - Cases J, Ibarra A, Feuillère N, Roller M, Sukkar SGPilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbancesMed J Nutrition Metab.(2011 Dec)
  32. Reishi - Zhao H, Zhang Q, Zhao L, Huang X, Wang J, Kang XSpore Powder of Ganoderma lucidum Improves Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Endocrine Therapy: A Pilot Clinical TrialEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2012)
  33. D-Serine - Levin R, Dor-Abarbanel AE, Edelman S, Durrant AR, Hashimoto K, Javitt DC, Heresco-Levy UBehavioral and cognitive effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor co-agonist D-serine in healthy humans: initial findingsJ Psychiatr Res.(2015 Feb)
  34. Cannabidiol (CBD) - Zuardi AW, Cosme RA, Graeff FG, Guimarães FSEffects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxietyJ Psychopharmacol.(1993 Jan)
  35. Lavender - J Lehrner, G Marwinski, S Lehr, P Johren, L DeeckeAmbient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental officePhysiol Behav.(2005 Sep 15)
  36. Kava - Malsch U, Kieser MEfficacy of kava-kava in the treatment of non-psychotic anxiety, following pretreatment with benzodiazepinesPsychopharmacology (Berl).(2001 Sep)
  37. Coenzyme Q10 - Sawaddiruk P, Apaijai N, Paiboonworachat S, Kaewchur T, Kasitanon N, Jaiwongkam T, Kerdphoo S, Chattipakorn N, Chattipakorn SCCoenzyme Q10 supplementation alleviates pain in pregabalin-treated fibromyalgia patients via reducing brain activity and mitochondrial dysfunctionFree Radic Res.(2019 Aug)
  38. Rhodiola Rosea - Siegfried Kasper, Angelika DienelMulticenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptomsNeuropsychiatr Dis Treat.(2017 Mar 22)
  39. Zinc - Siahbazi S, Behboudi-Gandevani S, Moghaddam-Banaem L, Montazeri AEffect of zinc sulfate supplementation on premenstrual syndrome and health-related quality of life: Clinical randomized controlled trialJ Obstet Gynaecol Res.(2017 May)
  40. Ashwagandha - Langade D, Kanchi S, Salve J, Debnath K, Ambegaokar DEfficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled StudyCureus.(2019 Sep 28)
  41. Ashwagandha - K Chandrasekhar, Jyoti Kapoor, Sridhar AnishettyA prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adultsIndian J Psychol Med.(2012 Jul)
  42. Theanine - Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Chisato Wakabayashi, Takamasa Noda, Hayato Ozawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Hiroshi KunugiEffects of chronic l-theanine administration in patients with major depressive disorder: an open-label studyActa Neuropsychiatr.(2017 Apr)
  43. Kava - Volz HP, Kieser MKava-kava extract WS 1490 versus placebo in anxiety disorders--a randomized placebo-controlled 25-week outpatient trialPharmacopsychiatry.(1997 Jan)
  44. Caffeine - Rogers PJ, Hohoff C, Heatherley SV, Mullings EL, Maxfield PJ, Evershed RP, Deckert J, Nutt DJAssociation of the anxiogenic and alerting effects of caffeine with ADORA2A and ADORA1 polymorphisms and habitual level of caffeine consumptionNeuropsychopharmacology.(2010 Aug)
  45. Curcumin - Lopresti AL, Drummond PDEfficacy of curcumin, and a saffron/curcumin combination for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Affect Disord.(2017 Jan 1)
  46. Saffron - Wolfgang Marx, Melissa Lane, Tetyana Rocks, Anu Ruusunen, Amy Loughman, Adrian Lopresti, Skye Marshall, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka, Olivia M DeanEffect of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysisNutr Rev.(2019 May 28)
  47. Vitamin D - Abdollahi R, Abiri B, Sarbakhsh P, Kashanian M, Vafa MThe Effect of Vitamin D Supplement Consumption on Premenstrual Syndrome in Vitamin D-Deficient Young Girls: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical TrialComplement Med Res.(2019)
  48. Theanine - Ai Yoto, Mao Motoki, Sato Murao, Hidehiko YokogoshiEffects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stressesJ Physiol Anthropol.(2012 Oct 29)
  49. Calcium - Shobeiri F, Araste FE, Ebrahimi R, Jenabi E, Nazari MEffect of calcium on premenstrual syndrome: A double-blind randomized clinical trialObstet Gynecol Sci.(2017 Jan)
  50. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Bersani, Giuseppe Meco, Alessandro Denaro, Damien Liberati, Chiara Colletti, Raffaella Nicolai, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Aleardo KoverechL-Acetylcarnitine in dysthymic disorder in elderly patients: a double-blind, multicenter, controlled randomized study vs. fluoxetineEur Neuropsychopharmacol.(2013 Oct)
  51. Fish Oil - Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Andridge R, Malarkey WB, Glaser ROmega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trialBrain Behav Immun.(2011 Nov)
  52. Holy Basil - D Bhattacharyya, T K Sur, U Jana, P K DebnathControlled programmed trial of Ocimum sanctum leaf on generalized anxiety disordersNepal Med Coll J.(2008 Sep)
  53. Saffron - Shahdadi H, Balouchi A, Dehghanmehr S Effect of saffron oral capsule on anxiety and quality of sleep of diabetic patients in a tertiary healthcare facility in southeastern Iran: A quasi-experimental studyTrop J Pharm Res.()
  54. Theanine - Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira HL-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responsesBiol Psychol.(2007 Jan)
  55. Black Cohosh - Amsterdam JD, Yao Y, Mao JJ, Soeller I, Rockwell K, Shults JRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) in women with anxiety disorder due to menopauseJ Clin Psychopharmacol.(2009 Oct)
  56. Red Clover Extract - Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB, Banuvar S, Zhou Y, Epstein G, Hedayat S, Nikolic D, Krause EC, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NRSafety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trialMenopause.(2009 Nov-Dec)
  57. Lavender - B Uehleke, S Schaper, A Dienel, S Schlaefke, R StangePhase II trial on the effects of Silexan in patients with neurasthenia, post-traumatic stress disorder or somatization disorderPhytomedicine.(2012 Jun 15)
  58. Saffron - Alireza Milajerdi, Shima Jazayeri, Elham Shirzadi, Najmeh Hashemzadeh, Atieh Azizgol, Abolghassem Djazayery, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Shahin AkhondzadehThe effects of alcoholic extract of saffron (Crocus satious L.) on mild to moderate comorbid depression-anxiety, sleep quality, and life satisfaction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trialComplement Ther Med.(2018 Dec)
  59. Kava - Sarris J, Kavanagh DJ, Byrne G, Bone KM, Adams J, Deed GThe Kava Anxiety Depression Spectrum Study (KADSS): a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial using an aqueous extract of Piper methysticumPsychopharmacology (Berl).(2009 Aug)
  60. Chaste tree - Ma L, Lin S, Chen R, Zhang Y, Chen F, Wang XEvaluating therapeutic effect in symptoms of moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus (BNO 1095) in Chinese womenAust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol.(2010 Apr)
  61. Saffron - Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Seyed Hesameddin Abbasi, Hamideh Safi-Aghdam, Nazila Shahmansouri, Akram Arjmandi-Beglar, Azita Hajhosseinn Talasaz, Abbas Salehiomran, Saeedeh Forghani, Shahin AkhondzadehEffects of Saffron on Cognition, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled TrialJ Altern Complement Med.(2018 Apr)
  62. N-Acetylcysteine - Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Kim SWN-acetylcysteine, a glutamate modulator, in the treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyArch Gen Psychiatry.(2009 Jul)
  63. L-Carnitine - Knut Hagen, Eiliv Brenner, Mattias Linde, Gøril Bruvik Gravdahl, Erling Andreas Tronvik, Morten Engstrøm, Ursula Sonnewald, Grethe Helde, Lars Jacob Stovner, Trond SandAcetyl-l-carnitine versus placebo for migraine prophylaxis: A randomized, triple-blind, crossover studyCephalalgia.(2015 Oct)
  64. Lion's Mane - Nagano M, Shimizu K, Kondo R, Hayashi C, Sato D, Kitagawa K, Ohnuki KReduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intakeBiomed Res.(2010 Aug)
  65. Lavender - Metaxia Kritsidima, Tim Newton, Koula AsimakopoulouThe effects of lavender scent on dental patient anxiety levels: a cluster randomised-controlled trialCommunity Dent Oral Epidemiol.(2010 Feb)
  66. Nicotine - Newhouse P, Kellar K, Aisen P, White H, Wesnes K, Coderre E, Pfaff A, Wilkins H, Howard D, Levin EDNicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month double-blind pilot clinical trialNeurology.(2012 Jan 10)
  67. Theanine - Sarris J, Byrne GJ, Cribb L, Oliver G, Murphy J, Macdonald P, Nazareth S, Karamacoska D, Galea S, Short A, Ee C, Birling Y, Menon R, Ng CHL-theanine in the adjunctive treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trialJ Psychiatr Res.(2019 Mar)
  68. Fish Oil - Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Migliorini S, Lodi LCognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Invest.(2005 Nov)
  69. Lavender - Kasper S, Gastpar M, Müller WE, Volz HP, Möller HJ, Dienel A, Schläfke SSilexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trialInt Clin Psychopharmacol.(2010 Sep)
  70. Bacopa Monnieri - Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken BEffects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Altern Complement Med.(2008 Jul)
  71. Ashwagandha - Sud Khyati S, Thaker Anup BA RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY OF ASHWAGANDHA ON GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDERInternational Ayurvedic Medical Journal .()
  72. Magnesium - Ebrahimi E, Khayati Motlagh S, Nemati S, Tavakoli ZEffects of magnesium and vitamin b6 on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptomsJ Caring Sci.(2012 Nov 22)
  73. Curcumin - Lopresti AL, Maes M, Maker GL, Hood SD, Drummond PDCurcumin for the treatment of major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled studyJ Affect Disord.(2014)
  74. Red Clover Extract - Lipovac M, Chedraui P, Gruenhut C, Gocan A, Stammler M, Imhof MImprovement of postmenopausal depressive and anxiety symptoms after treatment with isoflavones derived from red clover extractsMaturitas.(2010 Mar)
  75. Ashwagandha - Auddy, B, et alA Standardized Withania Somnifera Extract Significantly Reduces Stress-Related Parameters in Chronically Stressed Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyJ Am Nut Assn.()
  76. Phenylpiracetam - A Iu Savchenko, N S Zakharova, I N Stepanov[The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions]Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova.(2005)
  77. Vegan Diet - Isabel Iguacel, Inge Huybrechts, Luis A Moreno, Nathalie MichelsVegetarianism and veganism compared with mental health and cognitive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysisNutr Rev.(2021 Mar 9)
  78. Saffron - Fukui H, Toyoshima K, Komaki RPsychological and neuroendocrinological effects of odor of saffron (Crocus sativus)Phytomedicine.(2011 Jun 15)
  79. Yohimbine - Umhau JC, Schwandt ML, Usala J, Geyer C, Singley E, George DT, Heilig MPharmacologically induced alcohol craving in treatment seeking alcoholics correlates with alcoholism severity, but is insensitive to acamprosateNeuropsychopharmacology.(2011 May)
  80. Theanine - Ritsner MS, Miodownik C, Ratner Y, Shleifer T, Mar M, Pintov L, Lerner VL-theanine relieves positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-center studyJ Clin Psychiatry.(2011 Jan)
  81. Cannabis - Nicola Black, Emily Stockings, Gabrielle Campbell, Lucy T Tran, Dino Zagic, Wayne D Hall, Michael Farrell, Louisa DegenhardtCannabinoids for the treatment of mental disorders and symptoms of mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysisLancet Psychiatry.(2019 Dec)
  82. Kava - Gastpar M, Klimm HDTreatment of anxiety, tension and restlessness states with Kava special extract WS 1490 in general practice: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter trialPhytomedicine.(2003 Nov)
  83. Kava - Pittler MH, Ernst EKava extract for treating anxietyCochrane Database Syst Rev.(2003)
  84. Saffron - Mansoor Shakiba, Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Morteza Jafarinia, Parisa Divsalar, Ladan Kashani, Nazila Shahmansouri, Abbas Tafakhori, Hannaneh Bayat, Shahin AkhondzadehSaffron ( Crocus sativus) versus duloxetine for treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: A randomized double-blind clinical trialAvicenna J Phytomed.(Nov-Dec 2018)
  85. Meditation - Henderson VP, Clemow L, Massion AO, Hurley TG, Druker S, Hébert JRThe effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on psychosocial outcomes and quality of life in early-stage breast cancer patients: a randomized trialBreast Cancer Res Treat.(2012 Jan)
  86. Ashwagandha - Chengappa KN, Bowie CR, Schlicht PJ, Fleet D, Brar JS, Jindal RRandomized placebo-controlled adjunctive study of an extract of withania somnifera for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorderJ Clin Psychiatry.(2013 Nov)
  87. Ginkgo Biloba - Woelk H, Arnoldt KH, Kieser M, Hoerr RGinkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Psychiatr Res.(2007 Sep)
  88. Kava - Geier FP, Konstantinowicz TKava treatment in patients with anxietyPhytother Res.(2004 Apr)
  89. Fish Oil - Sohrabi N, Kashanian M, Ghafoori SS, Malakouti SKEvaluation of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: "a pilot trial"Complement Ther Med.(2013 Jun)
  90. Lavender - H Woelk, S SchläfkeA multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorderPhytomedicine.(2010 Feb)
  91. Binaural Beats - Alessandro Tani, Guido Vagheggini, Francesca Moretti, Valentina Del Colombo, Joerg Lehle, Serena Campana, Angelo Labate, Francesco TomaiuoloBinaural Beats Reduce Postoperative Morphine Consumption in Older adults After Total Knee Replacement SurgeryAltern Ther Health Med.(2020 May 15)
  92. Ashwagandha - Cooley K, Szczurko O, Perri D, Mills EJ, Bernhardt B, Zhou Q, Seely DNaturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974PLoS One.(2009 Aug 31)
  93. Inositol - Fux M, Levine J, Aviv A, Belmaker RHInositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorderAm J Psychiatry.(1996 Sep)
  94. Fish Oil - Jahangard L, Sadeghi A, Ahmadpanah M, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Sadeghi Bahmani D, Haghighi M, Brand SInfluence of adjuvant omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, sleep, and emotion regulation among outpatients with major depressive disorders - Results from a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trialJ Psychiatr Res.(2018 Dec)
  95. Lemon Balm - Dimpfel W, Pischel I, Lehnfeld REffects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity of volunteersEur J Med Res.(2004 Sep 29)
  96. Theanine - Akiko Higashiyama, Hla Hla Htay, Makoto Ozeki, Lekh R. Juneja, Mahendra P. KapoorEffects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time responseJournal of Functional Foods.()
  97. Saffron - Adrian L Lopresti, Peter D Drummond, Antonio M Inarejos-García, Marin Prodanovaffron ®, a standardised extract from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for the treatment of youth anxiety and depressive symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyJ Affect Disord.(2018 May)
  98. L-Carnitine - Malaguarnera M, Bella R, Vacante M, Giordano M, Malaguarnera G, Gargante MP, Motta M, Mistretta A, Rampello L, Pennisi GAcetyl-L-carnitine reduces depression and improves quality of life in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathyScand J Gastroenterol.(2011 Jun)
  99. Fish Oil - Watanabe N, Matsuoka Y, Kumachi M, Hamazaki K, Horikoshi M, Furukawa TAOmega-3 fatty acids for a better mental state in working populations - Happy Nurse Project: A 52-week randomized controlled trialJ Psychiatr Res.(2018 Jul)
  100. Cannabis - Carolina Chaves, Paulo Cesar T Bittencourt, Andreia PelegriniIngestion of a THC-Rich Cannabis Oil in People with Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical TrialPain Med.(2020 Oct 1)
  101. Theanine - Kristy Lu, Marcus A. Gray, Chris Oliver, David T. Liley, Ben J. Harrison, Cali F. Bartholomeusz, K. Luan Phan and Pradeep J. NathanThe acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humansHuman Psychopharmacology.()
  102. Saffron - Graham Kell, Amanda Rao, Gavin Beccaria, Paul Clayton, Antonio Manuel Inarejos-García, Marin Prodanovaffron ® a novel saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) improves mood in healthy adults over 4 weeks in a double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trialComplement Ther Med.(2017 Aug)
  103. Coenzyme Q10 - Mario D Cordero, Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez, Manuel de Miguel, Ognjen Culic, Angel M Carrión, José Miguel Alvarez-Suarez, Pedro Bullón, Maurizio Battino, Ana Fernández-Rodríguez, José Antonio Sánchez-AlcazarCan coenzyme q10 improve clinical and molecular parameters in fibromyalgia?Antioxid Redox Signal.(2013 Oct 20)
  104. Ashwagandha - Salve J, Pate S, Debnath K, Langade DAdaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical StudyCureus.(2019 Dec 25)
  105. Inositol - Benjamin J, Levine J, Fux M, Aviv A, Levy D, Belmaker RHDouble-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inositol treatment for panic disorderAm J Psychiatry.(1995 Jul)
  106. Saffron - Mohsen Mazidi, Maryam Shemshian, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Abdolreza Norouzy, Tayebe Kermani, Toktam Moghiman, Akram Sadeghi, Naghme Mokhber, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A A FernsA double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of anxiety and depressionJ Complement Integr Med.(2016 Jun 1)
  107. Rhodiola Rosea - Cropley M, Banks AP, Boyle JThe Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood SymptomsPhytother Res.(2015 Dec)
  108. Vitamin D - Tartagni M, Cicinelli MV, Tartagni MV, Alrasheed H, Matteo M, Baldini D, De Salvia M, Loverro G, Montagnani MVitamin D Supplementation for Premenstrual Syndrome-Related Mood Disorders in Adolescents with Severe Hypovitaminosis DJ Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol.(2016 Aug)
  109. Ashwagandha - Lopresti AL, Smith SJ, Malvi H, Kodgule RAn investigation into the stress-relieving and pharmacological actions of an ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyMedicine (Baltimore).(2019 Sep)
  110. Fish Oil - Cohen LS, Joffe H, Guthrie KA, Ensrud KE, Freeman M, Carpenter JS, Learman LA, Newton KM, Reed SD, Manson JE, Sternfeld B, Caan B, Freeman EW, LaCroix AZ, Tinker LF, Booth-Laforce C, Larson JC, Anderson GLEfficacy of omega-3 for vasomotor symptoms treatment: a randomized controlled trialMenopause.(2014 Apr)
  111. Yohimbine - Sommer M, Braumann M, Althoff T, Backhaus J, Kordon A, Junghanns K, Ehrenthal D, Bartmann U, Hohagen F, Broocks APsychological and neuroendocrine responses to social stress and to the administration of the alpha-2-receptor antagonist, yohimbine, in highly trained endurance athletes in comparison to untrained healthy controlsPharmacopsychiatry.(2011 Jun)
  112. Tart Cherry Juice - Sinclair J, Bottoms L, Dillon S, Allan R, Shadwell G, Butters BEffects of Montmorency Tart Cherry and Blueberry Juice on Cardiometabolic and Other Health-Related Outcomes: A Three-Arm Placebo Randomized Controlled Trial.Int J Environ Res Public Health.(2022-Apr-27)
  113. Bacopa Monnieri - Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Phipps A, Micallef C, Smoker JChronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memoryNeuropsychopharmacology.(2002 Aug)
  114. Bacopa Monnieri - Sathyanarayanan V, Thomas T, Einöther SJ, Dobriyal R, Joshi MK, Krishnamachari SBrahmi for the better? New findings challenging cognition and anti-anxiety effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera) in healthy adultsPsychopharmacology (Berl).(2013 Jan 26)
  115. N-Acetylcysteine - Fernandes BS, Dean OM, Dodd S, Malhi GS, Berk MN-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Clin Psychiatry.(2016-Apr)
  116. Inositol - Tomohiko Mukai, Taro Kishi, Yuki Matsuda, Nakao IwataA meta-analysis of inositol for depression and anxiety disordersHum Psychopharmacol.(2014 Jan)
  117. Psychedelic Therapy - Simon B Goldberg, Brian T Pace, Christopher R Nicholas, Charles L Raison, Paul R HutsonThe experimental effects of psilocybin on symptoms of anxiety and depression: A meta-analysisPsychiatry Res.(2020 Feb)
  118. Theanine - Williams JL, Everett JM, D'Cunha NM, Sergi D, Georgousopoulou EN, Keegan RJ, McKune AJ, Mellor DD, Anstice N, Naumovski NThe Effects of Green Tea Amino Acid L-Theanine Consumption on the Ability to Manage Stress and Anxiety Levels: a Systematic Review.Plant Foods Hum Nutr.(2020-Mar)
  119. Red Light Therapy - Yeh SW, Hong CH, Shih MC, Tam KW, Huang YH, Kuan YCLow-Level Laser Therapy for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Pain Physician.(2019-May)
  120. Ashwagandha - Camellia Akhgarjand, Farzaneh Asoudeh, Amir Bagheri, Zahra Kalantar, Zahra Vahabi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar, Hamid Rezvani, Kurosh DjafarianDoes Ashwagandha supplementation have a beneficial effect on the management of anxiety and stress? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsPhytother Res.(2022 Aug 25)
  121. Valerian - Shinjyo N, Waddell G, Green JValerian Root in Treating Sleep Problems and Associated Disorders-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.J Evid Based Integr Med.(2020)
  122. Passionflower - da Cunha RS, Amorim KS, Gercina AC, de Oliveira ACA, Dos Santos Menezes L, Groppo FC, Souza LMAHerbal medicines as anxiolytics prior to third molar surgical extraction. A randomized controlled clinical trial.Clin Oral Investig.(2021-Mar)
  123. Passionflower - Lee J, Jung HY, Lee SI, Choi JH, Kim SGEffects of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus on polysomnographic sleep parameters in subjects with insomnia disorder: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.Int Clin Psychopharmacol.(2020-Jan)
  124. Passionflower - Nojoumi M, Ghaeli P, Salimi S, Sharifi A, Raisi FEffects of Passion Flower Extract, as an Add-On Treatment to Sertraline, on Reaction Time in Patients ‎with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.Iran J Psychiatry.(2016-Jul)
  125. Passionflower - Dantas LP, de Oliveira-Ribeiro A, de Almeida-Souza LM, Groppo FCEffects of passiflora incarnata and midazolam for control of anxiety in patients undergoing dental extraction.Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal.(2017-Jan-01)
  126. Passionflower - Aslanargun P, Cuvas O, Dikmen B, Aslan E, Yuksel MUPassiflora incarnata Linneaus as an anxiolytic before spinal anesthesia.J Anesth.(2012-Feb)
  127. Passionflower - Ngan A, Conduit RA double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality.Phytother Res.(2011-Aug)
  128. Passionflower - Movafegh A, Alizadeh R, Hajimohamadi F, Esfehani F, Nejatfar MPreoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Anesth Analg.(2008-Jun)
  129. Passionflower - Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H, Khani MPassionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam.J Clin Pharm Ther.(2001-Oct)
  130. Lavender - Möller HJ, Volz HP, Dienel A, Schläfke S, Kasper SEfficacy of Silexan in subthreshold anxiety: meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled trials.Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci.(2019-Mar)
  131. Lavender - Yap WS, Dolzhenko AV, Jalal Z, Hadi MA, Khan TMEfficacy and safety of lavender essential oil (Silexan) capsules among patients suffering from anxiety disorders: A network meta-analysisSci Rep.(2019 Dec 2)
  132. Lavender - Kang HJ, Nam ES, Lee Y, Kim MHow Strong is the Evidence for the Anxiolytic Efficacy of Lavender?: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci).(2019-Dec)
  133. Lavender - Dold M, Bartova L, Volz HP, Seifritz E, Möller HJ, Schläfke S, Kasper SEfficacy of Silexan in patients with anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials.Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci.(2023-Jan-30)