TNF-Alpha

Last Updated: March 2, 2023

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is used as a marker of inflammation. Its reduction is thought to reflect a lesser state of inflammation in the body.

Summary

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) got its name from its ability to kill off tumor cells in mice. It’s a protein that’s released from a wide range of cells in order to activate the immune system.

It accomplishes this in a variety of ways, including (but not limited to) inducing fever, helping initiate the “acute phase response,” which increases inflammation in response to injury and can help fight off microbes and clean up, as well as attracting white blood cells to sites of injury and infection. Since it “moves cells” to do its job and because it promotes inflammation, it is known as a “proinflammatory cytokine.” In short, TNF-alpha boosts the immune system.

While “boosting the immune system” may sound like a good thing, the immune system is pretty powerful and can cause a lot of collateral damage in the body if boosted too much. For instance, some of the effects[1] of malaria infection are not due to the parasite itself, but because of overproduction of TNF-alpha. It may also cause some trouble in other major diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease[2], Alzheimer’s[3], and depression[4]. Lower levels may be associated with longevity as well, but the research on this has been conflicting[5].

Examine Database: TNF-Alpha
What works and what doesn't?

Unlock the full potential of Examine

Get started

Don't miss out on the latest research

References
  1. ^I A Clark, J L Virelizier, E A Carswell, P R WoodPossible importance of macrophage-derived mediators in acute malariaInfect Immun.(1981 Jun)
  2. ^J Brynskov, P Foegh, G Pedersen, C Ellervik, T Kirkegaard, A Bingham, T SaermarkTumour necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE) activity in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel diseaseGut.(2002 Jul)
  3. ^Walter Swardfager, Krista Lanctôt, Lana Rothenburg, Amy Wong, Jaclyn Cappell, Nathan HerrmannA meta-analysis of cytokines in Alzheimer's diseaseBiol Psychiatry.(2010 Nov 15)
  4. ^Yekta Dowlati, Nathan Herrmann, Walter Swardfager, Helena Liu, Lauren Sham, Elyse K Reim, Krista L LanctôtA meta-analysis of cytokines in major depressionBiol Psychiatry.(2010 Mar 1)
  5. ^Juulia Jylhävä, Mikko HurmeGene variants as determinants of longevity: focus on the inflammatory factorsPflugers Arch.(2010 Jan)
Examine Database References
  1. Vitamin E - Wu JH, Ward NC, Indrawan AP, Almeida CA, Hodgson JM, Proudfoot JM, Puddey IB, Croft KDEffects of alpha-tocopherol and mixed tocopherol supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetesClin Chem.(2007 Mar)
  2. Cocoa Extract - Muniyappa R, Hall G, Kolodziej TL, Karne RJ, Crandon SK, Quon MJCocoa consumption for 2 wk enhances insulin-mediated vasodilatation without improving blood pressure or insulin resistance in essential hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Dec)
  3. Fish Oil - Dangardt F, Osika W, Chen Y, Nilsson U, Gan LM, Gronowitz E, Strandvik B, Friberg POmega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves vascular function and reduces inflammation in obese adolescentsAtherosclerosis.(2010 Oct)
  4. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Ilaria Ferrari, Angela D'Angelo, Elena Fogari, Ilaria Palumbo, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G CiceroComparison between orlistat plus l-carnitine and orlistat alone on inflammation parameters in obese diabetic patientsFundam Clin Pharmacol.(2011 Oct)
  5. Cocoa Extract - Di Renzo L, Rizzo M, Sarlo F, Colica C, Iacopino L, Domino E, Sergi D, De Lorenzo AEffects of dark chocolate in a population of normal weight obese women: a pilot studyEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2013 Aug)
  6. Curcumin - Yu JJ, Pei LB, Zhang Y, Wen ZY, Yang JLChronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot StudyJ Clin Psychopharmacol.(2015 Aug)
  7. Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) - Westphal S, Borucki K, Taneva E, Makarova R, Luley CExtended-release niacin raises adiponectin and leptinAtherosclerosis.(2007 Aug)
  8. Saffron - Hajieh Shahbazian, Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Reza Amani, Foroogh Namjooyan, Bahman Cheraghian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Sara Bahrainian, Ataallah GhadiriEffects of saffron on homocysteine, and antioxidant and inflammatory biomarkers levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized double-blind clinical trialAvicenna J Phytomed.(Sep-Oct 2019)
  9. Fish Oil - Kelley DS, Taylor PC, Nelson GJ, Schmidt PC, Ferretti A, Erickson KL, Yu R, Chandra RK, Mackey BEDocosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy menLipids.(1999 Apr)
  10. Coenzyme Q10 - Dahri M, Tarighat-Esfanjani A, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Hashemilar MOral coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with migraine: Effects on clinical features and inflammatory markersNutr Neurosci.(2018 Jan 3)
  11. Fish Oil - Pot GK, Brouwer IA, Enneman A, Rijkers GT, Kampman E, Geelen ANo effect of fish oil supplementation on serum inflammatory markers and their interrelationships: a randomized controlled trial in healthy, middle-aged individualsEur J Clin Nutr.(2009 Nov)
  12. Saffron - Zahra Hamidi, Naheed Aryaeian, Jamileh Abolghasemi, Fatemeh Shirani, Mahsa Hadidi, Soudabeh Fallah, Nariman MoradiThe effect of saffron supplement on clinical outcomes and metabolic profiles in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialPhytother Res.(2020 Jul)
  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Venkatramanan S, Joseph SV, Chouinard PY, Jacques H, Farnworth ER, Jones PJMilk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid fails to alter blood lipids or body composition in moderately overweight, borderline hyperlipidemic individualsJ Am Coll Nutr.(2010 Apr)
  14. L-Carnitine - Amiri-Moghadam s, et alEffects of L-carnitine supplementation on inflammatory factors and malondialdehyde in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)CURR TOP NUTRACEUT R.()
  15. Spirulina - Lee EH, Park JE, Choi YJ, Huh KB, Kim WYA randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patientsNutr Res Pract.(2008 Winter)
  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Joseph SV, Jacques H, Plourde M, Mitchell PL, McLeod RS, Jones PJConjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic menJ Nutr.(2011 Jul)
  17. L-Carnitine - Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Russo C, Antic T, Vacante M, Malaguarnera M, Avitabile T, Li Volti G, Galvano FL-carnitine supplementation to diet: a new tool in treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis--a randomized and controlled clinical trialAm J Gastroenterol.(2010 Jun)
  18. Astaxanthin - Park JS, Chyun JH, Kim YK, Line LL, Chew BPAstaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humansNutr Metab (Lond).(2010 Mar 5)
  19. Fish Oil - Krebs JD, Browning LM, McLean NK, Rothwell JL, Mishra GD, Moore CS, Jebb SAAdditive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic womenInt J Obes (Lond).(2006 Oct)
  20. Lactobacillus Reuteri - Di Nardo G, Oliva S, Menichella A, Pistelli R, De Biase RV, Patriarchi F, Cucchiara S, Stronati LLactobacillus reuteri ATCC55730 in cystic fibrosisJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.(2014 Jan)
  21. Spirulina - Park HJ, Lee YJ, Ryu HK, Kim MH, Chung HW, Kim WYA randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study to establish the effects of spirulina in elderly KoreansAnn Nutr Metab.(2008)
  22. Coenzyme Q10 - Hadi Abdollahzad, Mir Amir Aghdashi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Beitollah AlipourEffects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Inflammatory Cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and Oxidative Stress in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized Controlled TrialArch Med Res.(2015 Oct)
  23. Japanese Knotweed - Ghanim H, Sia CL, Abuaysheh S, Korzeniewski K, Patnaik P, Marumganti A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona PAn antiinflammatory and reactive oxygen species suppressive effects of an extract of Polygonum cuspidatum containing resveratrolJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2010 Sep)
  24. Kefir - Ali Kudret Adiloğlu, Nurettin Gönülateş, Mehmet Işler, Altuğ Senol[The effect of kefir consumption on human immune system: a cytokine study]Mikrobiyol Bul.(2013 Apr)
  25. Pomegranate seed oil - Asghari G, Sheikholeslami S, Mirmiran P, Chary A, Hedayati M, Shafiee A, Azizi FEffect of pomegranate seed oil on serum TNF-α level in dyslipidemic patientsInt J Food Sci Nutr.(2012 May)
  26. L-Carnitine - Bor-Jen Lee, Jun-Shuo Lin, Yi-Chin Lin, Ping-Ting LinAntiinflammatory effects of L-carnitine supplementation (1000 mg/d) in coronary artery disease patientsNutrition.(2015 Mar)
  27. Betaine - Abdelmalek MF, Sanderson SO, Angulo P, Soldevila-Pico C, Liu C, Peter J, Keach J, Cave M, Chen T, McClain CJ, Lindor KDBetaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trialHepatology.(2009 Dec)
  28. Fish Oil - Paula Simplício da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Dias de Brito, Claudia Santos de Aguiar Cardoso, Cristiane Fonseca de Almeida, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Andrea Silvestre de SousaOmega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical studyNutr J.(2017 Jun 9)
  29. Fish Oil - Mina Abdolahi, Abbas Tafakhori, Mansoureh Togha, Ali Asghar Okhovat, Feridoun Siassi, Mohammad Reza Eshraghian, Mohsen Sedighiyan, Mona Djalali, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Mahmoud DjalaliThe synergistic effects of ω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin supplementation on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene expression and serum level in migraine patientsImmunogenetics.(2017 Jun)
  30. Fish Oil - Bloomer RJ, Larson DE, Fisher-Wellman KH, Galpin AJ, Schilling BKEffect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over studyLipids Health Dis.(2009 Aug 19)
  31. Zinc - C S Mantzoros, A S Prasad, F W Beck, S Grabowski, J Kaplan, C Adair, G J BrewerZinc may regulate serum leptin concentrations in humansJ Am Coll Nutr.(1998 Jun)
  32. L-Carnitine - F Haghighatdoost, M Jabbari, Mitra HaririThe effect of L-carnitine on inflammatory mediators: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trialsEur J Clin Pharmacol.(2019 Aug)
  33. Reishi - Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, Huang M, Dai XEffects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patientsImmunol Invest.(2003 Aug)
  34. Kefir - Peter Smoak, Nicholas Harman, Victoria Flores, Jacob Kisiolek, Nicholas A Pullen, Jonathan Lisano, Reid Hayward, Laura K StewartKefir Is a Viable Exercise Recovery Beverage for Cancer Survivors Enrolled in a Structured Exercise ProgramMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2021 Oct 1)
  35. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Morken T, Bohov P, Skorve J, Ulvik R, Aukrust P, Berge RK, Livden JKAnti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic effects of the modified fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid in psoriasis--a pilot studyScand J Clin Lab Invest.(2011 Jul)
  36. Curcumin - Nieman DC, Cialdella-Kam L, Knab AM, Shanely RAInfluence of red pepper spice and turmeric on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in overweight females: a metabolomics approachPlant Foods Hum Nutr.(2012 Dec)
  37. Colostrum - Carol A, Witkamp RF, Wichers HJ, Mensink MBovine colostrum supplementation's lack of effect on immune variables during short-term intense exercise in well-trained athletesInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2011 Apr)
  38. L-Carnitine - Mahdavi R, et alL-Carnitine supplementation ameliorates serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-3 in knee osteoarthritis womenBangladesh J Pharmacol.()
  39. Spirulina - Sara Mohiti, Meysam Zarezadeh, Fatemeh Naeini, Helda Tutunchi, Alireza Ostadrahimi, Zohreh Ghoreishi, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi MamaghaniSpirulina supplementation and oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trialsClin Exp Pharmacol Physiol.(2021 Aug)
  40. Rose Hip - Willich SN, Rossnagel K, Roll S, Wagner A, Mune O, Erlendson J, Kharazmi A, Sörensen H, Winther KRose hip herbal remedy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - a randomised controlled trialPhytomedicine.(2010 Feb)
  41. Coenzyme Q10 - Jahangard L, Yasrebifar F, Haghighi M, Ranjbar A, Mehrpooya MInfluence of adjuvant Coenzyme Q10 on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with bipolar disorders during the depressive episodeMol Biol Rep.(2019 Oct)
  42. Coenzyme Q10 - Sanoobar M, Eghtesadi S, Azimi A, Khalili M, Khodadadi B, Jazayeri S, Gohari MR, Aryaeian NCoenzyme Q10 supplementation ameliorates inflammatory markers in patients with multiple sclerosis: a double blind, placebo, controlled randomized clinical trialNutr Neurosci.(2015 May)
  43. L-Carnitine - Hadier M El-Sheikh, Sahar M El-Haggar, Tamer A ElbedewyComparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patientsDiabetes Metab Syndr.(Jan-Feb 2019)
  44. Garlic - Nantz MP, Rowe CA, Muller CE, Creasy RA, Stanilka JM, Percival SSSupplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and γδ-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition interventionClin Nutr.(2012 Jun)
  45. Vegan Diet - F Eichelmann, L Schwingshackl, V Fedirko, K AleksandrovaEffect of plant-based diets on obesity-related inflammatory profiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trialsObes Rev.(2016 Nov)
  46. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Sibilla A T Salvadeo, Ilaria Ferrari, Alessia Gravina, Roberto Mereu, Angela D'Angelo, Ilaria Palumbo, Sabrina Randazzo, Arrigo F G CiceroEffects of combination of sibutramine and L-carnitine compared with sibutramine monotherapy on inflammatory parameters in diabetic patientsMetabolism.(2011 Mar)
  47. Kefir - Ezgi Bellikci-Koyu, Banu Pınar Sarer-Yurekli, Yakut Akyon, Fadime Aydin-Kose, Cem Karagozlu, Ahmet Gokhan Ozgen, Annika Brinkmann, Andreas Nitsche, Koray Ergunay, Engin Yilmaz, Zehra BuyuktuncerEffects of Regular Kefir Consumption on Gut Microbiota in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Parallel-Group, Randomized, Controlled StudyNutrients.(2019 Sep 4)
  48. Colostrum - Shing CM, Peake J, Suzuki K, Okutsu M, Pereira R, Stevenson L, Jenkins DG, Coombes JSEffects of bovine colostrum supplementation on immune variables in highly trained cyclistsJ Appl Physiol (1985).(2007 Mar)
  49. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Fredriksen J, Ueland T, Dyrøy E, Halvorsen B, Melby K, Melbye L, Skalhegg BS, Bohov P, Skorve J, Berge RK, Aukrust P, Frøland SSLipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapyEur J Clin Invest.(2004 Oct)
  50. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Josep Bassaganya-Riera, Raquel Hontecillas, William T Horne, Mikki Sandridge, Hans H Herfarth, Richard Bloomfeld, Kim L IsaacsConjugated linoleic acid modulates immune responses in patients with mild to moderately active Crohn's diseaseClin Nutr.(2012 Oct)
  51. Saffron - Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Naheed Aryaeian, Naseh Pahlavani, Soudabeh Fallah, Nariman Moradi, Davoud Abbasi, Agha Fatemeh HosseiniEffects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialDiabetes Metab Syndr Obes.(2019 Oct 14)
  52. Ketogenic Diet - Myette-Côté É, Durrer C, Neudorf H, Bammert TD, Botezelli JD, Johnson JD, DeSouza CA, Little JPThe effect of a short-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with or without postmeal walks on glycemic control and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trialAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol.(2018 Dec 1)
  53. Spirulina - Hee Jung Park, Hyun Sook LeeMonocyte chemoattractant protein-1 polymorphism interaction with spirulina immunomodulatory effects in healthy Korean elderly: A 16 week, double-blind randomized clinical trialNutr Res Pract.(2017 Aug)
  54. Lactobacillus Reuteri - del Campo R, Garriga M, Pérez-Aragón A, Guallarte P, Lamas A, Máiz L, Bayón C, Roy G, Cantón R, Zamora J, Baquero F, Suárez LImprovement of digestive health and reduction in proteobacterial populations in the gut microbiota of cystic fibrosis patients using a Lactobacillus reuteri probiotic preparation: a double blind prospective studyJ Cyst Fibros.(2014 Dec)
  55. Resveratrol - Timmers S, Konings E, Bilet L, Houtkooper RH, van de Weijer T, Goossens GH, Hoeks J, van der Krieken S, Ryu D, Kersten S, Moonen-Kornips E, Hesselink MK, Kunz I, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Blaak EE, Auwerx J, Schrauwen PCalorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humansCell Metab.(2011 Nov 2)
  56. Saffron - Tayebe Kermani, Maedeh Zebarjadi, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Seyed-Reza Mirhafez, Maryam Shemshian, Faezeh Ghasemi, Elham Mohammadzadeh, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Abdolreza Norouzy, Toktam Moghiman, Akram Sadeghi, Gordon Ferns, Amir Avan, Elaheh Mahdipour, Majid Ghayour-MobarhanAnti-Inflammatory Effect of Crocus sativus on Serum Cytokine Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled TrialCurr Clin Pharmacol.(2017)
  57. Perilla - Minggang Wei, Peihua Xiong, Ling Zhang, Mei Fei, Aiping Chen, Fengling LiPerilla oil and exercise decrease expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and highly sensitive C-reactive protein in patients with hyperlipidemiaJ Tradit Chin Med.(2013 Apr)
  58. Curcumin - Jazayeri-Tehrani SA, Rezayat SM, Mansouri S, Qorbani M, Alavian SM, Daneshi-Maskooni M, Hosseinzadeh-Attar MJNano-curcumin improves glucose indices, lipids, inflammation, and Nesfatin in overweight and obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trialNutr Metab (Lond).(2019 Jan 28)
  59. Vitamin C - Tousoulis D, Antoniades C, Vasiliadou C, Kourtellaris P, Koniari K, Marinou K, Charakida M, Ntarladimas I, Siasos G, Stefanadis CEffects of atorvastatin and vitamin C on forearm hyperaemic blood flow, asymmentrical dimethylarginine levels and the inflammatory process in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusHeart.(2007 Feb)
  60. Boron - Hussain SA, Abood SJ, Gorial FIThe adjuvant use of calcium fructoborate and borax with etanercept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Pilot studyJ Intercult Ethnopharmacol.(2016 Dec 8)
  61. Creatine - Deminice R, Rosa FT, Franco GS, Jordao AA, de Freitas ECEffects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers after repeated-sprint exercise in humansNutrition.(2013 Sep)
  62. Zinc - Ranjbar E, Shams J, Sabetkasaei M, M-Shirazi M, Rashidkhani B, Mostafavi A, Bornak E, Nasrollahzadeh JEffects of zinc supplementation on efficacy of antidepressant therapy, inflammatory cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depressionNutr Neurosci.(2014 Feb)
  63. Vitamin D - Zittermann A, Frisch S, Berthold HK, Götting C, Kuhn J, Kleesiek K, Stehle P, Koertke H, Koerfer RVitamin D supplementation enhances the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk markersAm J Clin Nutr.(2009 May)
  64. Cocoa Extract - Lívia de Paula Nogueira, Marcela Paranhos Knibel, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Antonio Felipe SanjulianiConsumption of high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function in individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weightInt J Hypertens.(2012)
  65. Stinging Nettle - Namazi N, Esfanjani AT, Heshmati J, Bahrami AThe effect of hydro alcoholic Nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind control trialPak J Biol Sci.(2011 Aug 1)
  66. Blueberry - Stull AJ, Cash KC, Johnson WD, Champagne CM, Cefalu WTBioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and womenJ Nutr.(2010 Oct)
  67. Rhodiola Rosea - Lin C, et alRhodiola rosea does not reduce in vivo inflammatory activity after continuous endurance exerciseSCI SPORT.()
  68. Reishi - Zhao H, Zhang Q, Zhao L, Huang X, Wang J, Kang XSpore Powder of Ganoderma lucidum Improves Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Endocrine Therapy: A Pilot Clinical TrialEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2012)
  69. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Smedman A, Basu S, Jovinge S, Fredrikson GN, Vessby BConjugated linoleic acid increased C-reactive protein in human subjectsBr J Nutr.(2005 Nov)
  70. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio PaoliEffects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained malesJ Transl Med.(2016 Oct 13)
  71. Fish Oil - Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Andridge R, Malarkey WB, Hwang BS, Glaser ROmega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation in healthy middle-aged and older adults: a randomized controlled trialBrain Behav Immun.(2012 Aug)
  72. L-Carnitine - Angelika K Sawicka, Dace Hartmane, Patrycja Lipinska, Ewa Wojtowicz, Wieslawa Lysiak-Szydlowska, Robert A Olekl-Carnitine Supplementation in Older Women. A Pilot Study on Aging Skeletal Muscle Mass and FunctionNutrients.(2018 Feb 23)
  73. Citrulline - Zahra Darabi, Mina Darand, Zahra Yari, Mehdi Hedayati, Amirhosein Faghihi, Shahram Agah, Azita HekmatdoostInflammatory markers response to citrulline supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trialBMC Res Notes.(2019 Feb 15)
  74. Garlic - Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Hesabgar HA, Owlia MB, Hadinedoushan H, Barzegar K, Fllahzadeh MHThe effect of garlic tablet on pro-inflammatory cytokines in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: a randomized controlled clinical trialJ Diet Suppl.(2012 Dec)
  75. L-Carnitine - Volek JS, Judelson DA, Silvestre R, Yamamoto LM, Spiering BA, Hatfield DL, Vingren JL, Quann EE, Anderson JM, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJEffects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adultsAm J Cardiol.(2008 Nov 15)
  76. Kefir - E Topuz, D Derin, G Can, E Kürklü, S Cinar, F Aykan, A Cevikbaş, R Dişçi, Z Durna, B Sakar, S Saglam, H Tanyeri, G Deniz, U Gürer, F Taş, N Guney, A AydinerEffect of oral administration of kefir on serum proinflammatory cytokines on 5-FU induced oral mucositis in patients with colorectal cancerInvest New Drugs.(2008 Dec)
  77. Tart Cherry Juice - Chai SC, Davis K, Zhang Z, Zha L, Kirschner KFEffects of Tart Cherry Juice on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Older Adults.Nutrients.(2019-Jan-22)
  78. Tart Cherry Juice - Bell PG, Stevenson E, Davison GW, Howatson GThe Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent ExerciseNutrients.(2016 Jul 22)
  79. Tart Cherry Juice - Angela R Hillman, Bryna C R ChrismasThirty Days of Montmorency Tart Cherry Supplementation Has No Effect on Gut Microbiome Composition, Inflammation, or Glycemic Control in Healthy AdultsFront Nutr.(2021 Sep 16)
  80. Tart Cherry Juice - Phillip G Bell, Ian H Walshe, Gareth W Davison, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn HowatsonRecovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exerciseAppl Physiol Nutr Metab.(2015 Apr)
  81. Tart Cherry Juice - Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson E, Howatson GMontmorency cherries reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to repeated days high-intensity stochastic cyclingNutrients.(2014 Feb 21)
  82. Tart Cherry Juice - Jackman SR, Brook MS, Pulsford RM, Cockcroft EJ, Campbell MI, Rankin D, Atherton P, Smith K, Bowtell JLTart cherry concentrate does not enhance muscle protein synthesis response to exercise and protein in healthy older men.Exp Gerontol.(2018-Sep)
  83. Tart Cherry Juice - Wangdi JT, O'Leary MF, Kelly VG, Jackman SR, Tang JCY, Dutton J, Bowtell JLTart Cherry Supplement Enhances Skeletal Muscle Glutathione Peroxidase Expression and Functional Recovery after Muscle Damage.Med Sci Sports Exerc.(2022-Apr-01)
  84. Tart Cherry Juice - Martin KR, Burrell L, Bopp JAuthentic tart cherry juice reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese subjects: a randomized, crossover pilot study.Food Funct.(2018-Oct-17)
  85. Magnesium - Nicola Veronese, Damiano Pizzol, Lee Smith, Ligia J Dominguez, Mario BarbagalloEffect of Magnesium Supplementation on Inflammatory Parameters: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsNutrients.(2022 Feb 5)
  86. Magnesium - Reihaneh Mousavi, Mohammad Alizadeh, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Lida Heidari, Roshan Nikbakht, Hossein Babaahmadi Rezaei, Majid KarandishEffects of Melatonin and/or Magnesium Supplementation on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialBiol Trace Elem Res.(2021 May 19)
  87. Magnesium - Chua FB, Cinco JE, Paz-Pacheco EEfficacy of Magnesium Supplementation on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Meta-analysis.J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc.(2017)
  88. Magnesium - Behnaz Abiri, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Mohammadreza VafaRandomized study of the effects of vitamin D and/or magnesium supplementation on mood, serum levels of BDNF, inflammation, and SIRT1 in obese women with mild to moderate depressive symptomsNutr Neurosci.(2021 Jul 2)
  89. Magnesium - Talebi S, Miraghajani M, Hosseini R, Mohammadi HThe Effect of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Inflammatory Biomarkers in Adults: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Dose-response Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.Biol Trace Elem Res.(2022-Apr)
  90. Curcumin - Tabrizi R, Vakili S, Akbari M, Mirhosseini N, Lankarani KB, Rahimi M, Mobini M, Jafarnejad S, Vahedpoor Z, Asemi ZThe effects of curcumin-containing supplements on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Phytother Res.(2019-Feb)
  91. Berberine - Yang L, Zhu W, Zhang X, Zhou X, Wu W, Shen TEfficacy and safety of berberine for several cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Phytomedicine.(2023-Apr)
  92. Berberine - Jing Guo, Hongdong Chen, Xueqin Zhang, Wenjiao Lou, Pingna Zhang, Yuheng Qiu, Chao Zhang, Yaoxian Wang, Wei Jing LiuThe Effect of Berberine on Metabolic Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsOxid Med Cell Longev.(2021 Dec 15)
  93. N-Acetylcysteine - Faghfouri AH, Zarezadeh M, Tavakoli-Rouzbehani OM, Radkhah N, Faghfuri E, Kord-Varkaneh H, Tan SC, Ostadrahimi AThe effects of N-acetylcysteine on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.Eur J Pharmacol.(2020-Oct-05)
  94. Chromium - Zhang X, Cui L, Chen B, Xiong Q, Zhan Y, Ye J, Yin QEffect of chromium supplementation on hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 as risk factor for cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.Complement Ther Clin Pract.(2021-Feb)
  95. Hesperidin - Khorasanian AS, Fateh ST, Gholami F, Rasaei N, Gerami H, Khayyatzadeh SS, Shiraseb F, Asbaghi OThe effects of hesperidin supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.Front Nutr.(2023)
  96. Whey Protein - Jamshidi S, Mohsenpour MA, Masoumi SJ, Fatahi S, Nasimi N, Zahabi ES, Pourrajab B, Shidfar FEffect of whey protein consumption on IL-6 and TNF-α: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Diabetes Metab Syndr.(2022-Jan)
  97. Whey Protein - Konstantinos Prokopidis, Mohsen Mazidi, Rajiv Sankaranarayanan, Behnam Tajik, Anne McArdle, Masoud IsanejadEffects of whey and soy protein supplementation on inflammatory cytokines in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysisBr J Nutr.(2023 Mar 14)
  98. Resistant Starch - Wei Y, Zhang X, Meng Y, Wang Q, Xu H, Chen LThe Effects of Resistant Starch on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Nutr Cancer.(2022)
  99. Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) - Su H, Liu R, Chang M, Huang J, Jin Q, Wang XEffect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on blood inflammatory markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Eur J Nutr.(2018-Apr)
  100. Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA) - Yin S, Xu H, Xia J, Lu Y, Xu D, Sun J, Wang Y, Liao W, Sun GEffect of Alpha-Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile in Individuals with Obesity or Overweight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Adv Nutr.(2023-Sep-29)
  101. Mediterranean Diet - Koelman L, Egea Rodrigues C, Aleksandrova KEffects of Dietary Patterns on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Immune Responses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Adv Nutr.(2022-02-01)
  102. Folic Acid (Vitamin B9) - Zargarzadeh N, Severo JS, Pizarro AB, Persad E, Mousavi SMThe Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Pro-inflammatory Mediators: a Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Clin Ther.(2021-Dec)
  103. Folic Acid (Vitamin B9) - Jiang Z, Qu H, Chen K, Gao ZBeneficial effects of folic acid on inflammatory markers in the patients with metabolic syndrome: Meta-analysis and meta-regression of data from 511 participants in 10 randomized controlled trials.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.(2022-Dec-28)
  104. Coenzyme Q10 - Hou S, Tian Z, Zhao D, Liang Y, Dai S, Ji Q, Fan Z, Liu Z, Liu M, Yang YEfficacy and Optimal Dose of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Inflammation-Related Biomarkers: A GRADE-Assessed Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Mol Nutr Food Res.(2023-Jul)