Power Output

    Last Updated: January 27, 2020

    Your power output is the strength you can generate in the shortest amount of time. It is associated with type-II (i.e., fast-twitch) muscle fibers and the phosphagen system (which uses your creatine stores to regenerate ATP, the energy currency of your cells).

    Examine Database: Power Output

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    Examine Database References

    1. Creatine - Arciero PJ, Hannibal NS 3rd, Nindl BC, Gentile CL, Hamed J, Vukovich MDComparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flowMetabolism.(2001 Dec)
    2. Creatine - Faager G, Söderlund K, Sköld CM, Rundgren S, Tollbäck A, Jakobsson PCreatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled studyInt J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis.(2006)
    3. DHEA - Percheron G, Hogrel JY, Denot-Ledunois S, Fayet G, Forette F, Baulieu EE, Fardeau M, Marini JF; Double-blind placebo-controlled trialEffect of 1-year oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to 60- to 80-year-old individuals on muscle function and cross-sectional area: a double-blind placebo-controlled trialArch Intern Med.(2003 Mar 24)
    4. Creatine - Burke LM, Pyne DB, Telford RDEffect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmersInt J Sport Nutr.(1996 Sep)
    5. L-Carnitine - L Vecchiet, F Di Lisa, G Pieralisi, P Ripari, R Menabò, M A Giamberardino, N SiliprandiInfluence of L-carnitine administration on maximal physical exerciseEur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol.(1990)
    6. Gamma Oryzanol - Fry AC, Bonner E, Lewis DL, Johnson RL, Stone MH, Kraemer WJThe effects of gamma-oryzanol supplementation during resistance exercise trainingInt J Sport Nutr.(1997 Dec)
    7. Creatine - Jonathan P Little, Scott C Forbes, Darren G Candow, Stephen M Cornish, Philip D ChilibeckCreatine, arginine alpha-ketoglutarate, amino acids, and medium-chain triglycerides and endurance and performanceInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2008 Oct)
    8. Ashwagandha - Sandhu JS, Shah B, Shenoy S, Chauhan S, Lavekar GS, Padhi MMEffects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adultsInt J Ayurveda Res.(2010 Jul)
    9. L-Carnitine - V Wyss, G P Ganzit, A RienziEffects of L-carnitine administration on VO2max and the aerobic-anaerobic threshold in normoxia and acute hypoxiaEur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol.(1990)
    10. Betaine - Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Rashti SL, Faigenbaum ADEffect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigueJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2009 Feb 27)
    11. Leucic Acid - Antti A Mero, Tuomo Ojala, Juha J Hulmi, Risto Puurtinen, Tuomo AM Karila, and Timo SeppäläEffects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletesJISSN.()
    12. Betaine - Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Gonzalez AM, Beller NA, Craig SAEffect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exerciseJ Strength Cond Res.(2011 Aug)
    13. Creatine - Spillane M, Schoch R, Cooke M, Harvey T, Greenwood M, Kreider R, Willoughby DSThe effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levelsJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2009 Feb 19)
    14. Creatine - Tarnopolsky M, Martin JCreatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular diseaseNeurology.(1999 Mar 10)
    15. Creatine - Silva AJ, Machado Reis V, Guidetti L, Bessone Alves F, Mota P, Freitas J, Baldari CEffect of creatine on swimming velocity, body composition and hydrodynamic variablesJ Sports Med Phys Fitness.(2007 Mar)
    16. Sodium Bicarbonate - Carr AJ, Gore CJ, Dawson BInduced alkalosis and caffeine supplementation: effects on 2,000-m rowing performanceInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2011 Oct)
    17. HMB - Hoffman JR, Cooper J, Wendell M, Im J, Kang JEffects of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate on power performance and indices of muscle damage and stress during high-intensity trainingJ Strength Cond Res.(2004 Nov)
    18. Creatine - Anomasiri W, Sanguanrungsirikul S, Saichandee PLow dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performanceJ Med Assoc Thai.(2004 Sep)
    19. Beta-Alanine - Hoffman J, Ratamess NA, Ross R, Kang J, Magrelli J, Neese K, Faigenbaum AD, Wise JABeta-alanine and the hormonal response to exerciseInt J Sports Med.(2008 Dec)
    20. Spirulina - Mehdi Chaouachi, Sandrine Gautier, Yoann Carnot, Nicolas Bideau, Pierrick Guillemot, Yann Moison, Tom Collin, Sophie Vincent, Carole GroussardSpirulina platensis Provides a Small Advantage in Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance But Does Not Improve Elite Rugby Players' Body CompositionJ Diet Suppl.(2020 Oct 29)
    21. Arachidonic Acid - Roberts MD, Iosia M, Kerksick CM, Taylor LW, Campbell B, Wilborn CD, Harvey T, Cooke M, Rasmussen C, Greenwood M, Wilson R, Jitomir J, Willoughby D, Kreider RBEffects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained malesJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2007 Nov 28)
    22. HMB - Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, Walters JA, Baier SM, Fuller JC, Stout JR, Norton LE, Sikorski EM, Wilson SM, Duncan NM, Zanchi NE, Rathmacher Jβ-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained menBr J Nutr.(2013 Jan 3)
    23. Sodium Bicarbonate - McNaughton L, Dalton B, Palmer GSodium bicarbonate can be used as an ergogenic aid in high-intensity, competitive cycle ergometry of 1 h durationEur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol.(1999 Jun)
    24. Sodium Bicarbonate - Gao JP, Costill DL, Horswill CA, Park SHSodium bicarbonate ingestion improves performance in interval swimmingEur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol.(1988)
    25. Creatine - Chilibeck PD, Stride D, Farthing JP, Burke DGEffect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and femalesMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2004 Oct)
    26. Colostrum - Mero A, Nykänen T, Keinänen O, Knuutinen J, Lahti K, Alen M, Rasi S, Leppäluoto JProtein metabolism and strength performance after bovine colostrum supplementationAmino Acids.(2005 May)
    27. Creatine - Carter JM, Bemben DA, Knehans AW, Bemben MG, Witten MSDoes nutritional supplementation influence adaptability of muscle to resistance training in men aged 48 to 72 yearsJ Geriatr Phys Ther.(2005)
    28. Sodium Bicarbonate - Zabala M, Requena B, Sánchez-Muñoz C, González-Badillo JJ, García I, Oöpik V, Pääsuke MEffects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance and perceptual responses in a laboratory-simulated BMX cycling qualification seriesJ Strength Cond Res.(2008 Sep)
    29. HMB - Richard B. Kreider, Maria Pontes Ferreira, Michael Greenwood, M. Wilson, Pamela Grindstaff, Steven Plisk, Jeff Reinardy, Edward Cantler, and Anthony L. AmaldaEffects of Calcium β-HMB Supplementation During Training on Markers of Catabolism, Body Composition, Strength and Sprint PerformanceJournal of Exercise Physiology.()
    30. Citrulline - Takashi Suzuki, Masahiko Morita, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Ayako KamimuraOral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover studyJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2016 Feb 19)
    31. Betaine - Del Favero S, Roschel H, Artioli G, Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli V, Costa A, Barroso R, Negrelli AL, Otaduy MC, da Costa Leite C, Lancha-Junior AH, Gualano BCreatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performanceAmino Acids.(2011 Jul 9)
    32. Caffeine - Mora-Rodríguez R, Pallarés JG, López-Samanes A, Ortega JF, Fernández-Elías VECaffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained menPLoS One.(2012)
    33. Coenzyme Q10 - Bloomer RJ, Canale RE, McCarthy CG, Farney TMImpact of oral ubiquinol on blood oxidative stress and exercise performanceOxid Med Cell Longev.(2012)
    34. Creatine - Branch JDEffect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysisInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2003 Jun)
    35. Sodium Bicarbonate - Webster MJ, Webster MN, Crawford RE, Gladden LBEffect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on exhaustive resistance exercise performanceMed Sci Sports Exerc.(1993 Aug)
    36. HMB - Gallagher PM, Carrithers JA, Godard MP, Schulze KE, Trappe SWBeta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate ingestion, Part I: effects on strength and fat free massMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2000 Dec)
    37. Creatine - Chilibeck PD, Magnus C, Anderson MEffect of in-season creatine supplementation on body composition and performance in rugby union football playersAppl Physiol Nutr Metab.(2007 Dec)
    38. Chromium - Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, Cyr-Campbell D, Anderson RA, Evans WJEffects of resistance training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older menJ Appl Physiol (1985).(1999 Jan)
    39. Sodium Bicarbonate - Siegler JC, McNaughton LR, Midgley AW, Keatley S, Hillman AMetabolic alkalosis, recovery and sprint performanceInt J Sports Med.(2010 Nov)
    40. Sodium Bicarbonate - Price MJ, Cripps DThe effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performanceJ Sports Sci.(2012)
    41. L-Tyrosine - Les Tumilty, Nicholas Gregory, Manfred Beckmann, Rhys ThatcherNo Influence of Low-, Medium-, or High-Dose Tyrosine on Exercise in a Warm EnvironmentMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2020 Jun)
    42. Ecdysteroids - Wilborn CD, Taylor LW, Campbell BI, Kerksick C, Rasmussen CJ, Greenwood M, Kreider RBEffects of methoxyisoflavone, ecdysterone, and sulfo-polysaccharide supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained malesJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2006 Dec 13)
    43. Beta-Alanine - Baguet A, Bourgois J, Vanhee L, Achten E, Derave WImportant role of muscle carnosine in rowing performanceJ Appl Physiol.(2010 Oct)
    44. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Matthew T Stratton, Grant M Tinsley, Michaela G Alesi, Garrett M Hester, Alex A Olmos, Paul R Serafini, Andrew S Modjeski, Gerald T Mangine, Kelsey King, Shelby N Savage, Austin T Webb, Trisha A VanDusseldorpFour Weeks of Time-Restricted Feeding Combined with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Influence Measures of Body Composition, Muscle Performance, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Blood BiomarkersNutrients.(2020 Apr 17)
    45. Creatine - Kendall KL, Smith AE, Graef JL, Fukuda DH, Moon JR, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JREffects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged menJ Strength Cond Res.(2009 Sep)
    46. Chromium - Livolsi JM, Adams GM, Laguna PLThe effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletesJ Strength Cond Res.(2001 May)
    47. Vitamin D - Carrillo AE, Flynn MG, Pinkston C, Markofski MM, Jiang Y, Donkin SS, Teegarden DImpact of vitamin D supplementation during a resistance training intervention on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese adultsClin Nutr.(2012 Aug 31)
    48. Creatine - Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, Stout JEffect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletesInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2006 Aug)
    49. Creatine - Kornblum C, Schröder R, Müller K, Vorgerd M, Eggers J, Bogdanow M, Papassotiropoulos A, Fabian K, Klockgether T, Zange JCreatine has no beneficial effect on skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with single mitochondrial DNA deletions: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 31P-MRS crossover studyEur J Neurol.(2005 Apr)
    50. Creatine - Bazzucchi I, Felici F, Sacchetti MEffect of short-term creatine supplementation on neuromuscular functionMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2009 Oct)
    51. Ketogenic Diet - Urbain P, Strom L, Morawski L, Wehrle A, Deibert P, Bertz HImpact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adultsNutr Metab (Lond).(2017 Feb 20)
    52. Creatine - Rahimi RCreatine supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of resistance exerciseJ Strength Cond Res.(2011 Dec)
    53. Sodium Bicarbonate - Zabala M, Peinado AB, Calderón FJ, Sampedro J, Castillo MJ, Benito PJBicarbonate ingestion has no ergogenic effect on consecutive all out sprint tests in BMX elite cyclistsEur J Appl Physiol.(2011 Dec)
    54. Creatine - Camic CL, Hendrix CR, Housh TJ, Zuniga JM, Mielke M, Johnson GO, Schmidt RJ, Housh DJThe effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength and powerJ Strength Cond Res.(2010 Dec)
    55. Sodium Bicarbonate - Vanhatalo A, McNaughton LR, Siegler J, Jones AMEffect of induced alkalosis on the power-duration relationship of "all-out" exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2010 Mar)
    56. Creatine - Sakkas GK, Mulligan K, Dasilva M, Doyle JW, Khatami H, Schleich T, Kent-Braun JA, Schambelan MCreatine fails to augment the benefits from resistance training in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyPLoS One.(2009)
    57. Sodium Bicarbonate - Carr AJ, Slater GJ, Gore CJ, Dawson B, Burke LMReliability and effect of sodium bicarbonate: buffering and 2000-m rowing performanceInt J Sports Physiol Perform.(2012 Jun)
    58. Creatine - Mazzini L, Balzarini C, Colombo R, Mora G, Pastore I, De Ambrogio R, Caligari MEffects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and muscular strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary resultsJ Neurol Sci.(2001 Oct 15)
    59. L-Carnitine - Majid S Koozehchian, Amin Daneshfar, Ebrahim Fallah, Hamid Agha-Alinejad, Mohammad Samadi, Mojtaba Kaviani, Maryam Kaveh B, Y Peter Jung, Mozhgan Hassanzadeh Sablouei, Najmeh Moradi, Conrad P Earnest, T Jeff Chandler, Richard B KreiderEffects of nine weeks L-Carnitine supplementation on exercise performance, anaerobic power, and exercise-induced oxidative stress in resistance-trained malesJ Exerc Nutrition Biochem.(2018 Dec 31)
    60. Glutamine - Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, Davison KS, Smith-Palmer TEffect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adultsEur J Appl Physiol.(2001 Dec)
    61. Fish Oil - Lachlan Hingley, Michael J Macartney, Marc A Brown, Peter L McLennan, Gregory E PeoplesDHA-rich Fish Oil Increases the Omega-3 Index and Lowers the Oxygen Cost of Physiologically Stressful Cycling in Trained IndividualsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2017 Aug)
    62. Sodium Bicarbonate - Lavender G, Bird SREffect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprintsBr J Sports Med.(1989 Mar)
    63. Alanylglutamine - Hoffman JR, Williams DR, Emerson NS, Hoffman MW, Wells AJ, McVeigh DM, McCormack WP, Mangine GT, Gonzalez AM, Fragala MSL-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion maintains performance during a competitive basketball gameJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2012 Mar 7)
    64. DHEA - Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Sharp RL, Reifenrath TA, Parsons KA, King DSEffect of oral DHEA on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young menJ Appl Physiol.(1999 Dec)
    65. L-Carnitine - Ho JY, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Fragala MS, Thomas GA, Dunn-Lewis C, Coday M, Häkkinen K, Maresh CMl-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and womenMetabolism.(2010 Aug)
    66. Alcohol - Barnes MJ, Mundel T, Stannard SRThe effects of acute alcohol consumption on recovery from a simulated rugby matchJ Sports Sci.(2012)
    67. Creatine - Eckerson JM, Bull AA, Moore GAEffect of thirty days of creatine supplementation with phosphate salts on anaerobic working capacity and body weight in menJ Strength Cond Res.(2008 May)
    68. DHEA - Dayal M, Sammel MD, Zhao J, Hummel AC, Vandenbourne K, Barnhart KTSupplementation with DHEA: effect on muscle size, strength, quality of life, and lipidsJ Womens Health (Larchmt).(2005 Jun)
    69. Caffeine - Todd A Astorino, Michael N Terzi, Daniel W Roberson, Timothy R BurnettEffect of two doses of caffeine on muscular function during isokinetic exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2010 Dec)
    70. Cannabis - R D Steadward, M SinghThe effects of smoking marihuana on physical performanceMed Sci Sports.(Winter 1975)
    71. Branched-Chain Amino Acids - Shimomura Y, Inaguma A, Watanabe S, Yamamoto Y, Muramatsu Y, Bajotto G, Sato J, Shimomura N, Kobayashi H, Mawatari KBranched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle sorenessInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2010 Jun)
    72. HMB - Thomson JS, Watson PE, Rowlands DSEffects of nine weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta- methylbutyrate supplementation on strength and body composition in resistance trained menJ Strength Cond Res.(2009 May)
    73. Creatine - Juhász I, Györe I, Csende Z, Rácz L, Tihanyi JCreatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmersActa Physiol Hung.(2009 Sep)
    74. Colostrum - Buckley JD, Brinkworth GD, Abbott MJEffect of bovine colostrum on anaerobic exercise performance and plasma insulin-like growth factor IJ Sports Sci.(2003 Jul)
    75. Colostrum - A Mero, H Miikkulainen, J Riski, R Pakkanen, J Aalto, T TakalaEffects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-I, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgA during trainingJ Appl Physiol (1985).(1997 Oct)
    76. Sodium Bicarbonate - Cameron SL, McLay-Cooke RT, Brown RC, Gray AR, Fairbairn KAIncreased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union playersInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2010 Aug)
    77. Creatine - Bemben MG, Witten MS, Carter JM, Eliot KA, Knehans AW, Bemben DAThe effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older menJ Nutr Health Aging.(2010 Feb)
    78. Creatine - Banerjee B, Sharma U, Balasubramanian K, Kalaivani M, Kalra V, Jagannathan NREffect of creatine monohydrate in improving cellular energetics and muscle strength in ambulatory Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled 31P MRS studyMagn Reson Imaging.(2010 Jun)
    79. Citrulline - Paul Hwang, Flor E Morales Marroquín, Josh Gann, Tom Andre, Sarah McKinley-Barnard, Caelin Kim, Masahiko Morita, Darryn S WilloughbyEight weeks of resistance training in conjunction with glutathione and L-Citrulline supplementation increases lean mass and has no adverse effects on blood clinical safety markers in resistance-trained malesJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2018 Jun 27)
    80. Colostrum - Shing CM, Jenkins DG, Stevenson L, Coombes JSThe influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in highly trained cyclistsBr J Sports Med.(2006 Sep)
    81. Creatine - Antonio J, Ciccone VThe effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strengthJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2013 Aug 6)
    82. Colostrum - Lund P, Sangild PT, Aunsholt L, Hartmann B, Holst JJ, Mortensen J, Mortensen PB, Jeppesen PBRandomised controlled trial of colostrum to improve intestinal function in patients with short bowel syndromeEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 Sep)
    83. Creatine - Roy BD, de Beer J, Harvey D, Tarnopolsky MACreatine monohydrate supplementation does not improve functional recovery after total knee arthroplastyArch Phys Med Rehabil.(2005 Jul)
    84. Sodium Bicarbonate - Driller MW, Gregory JR, Williams AD, Fell JWThe effects of serial and acute NaHCO3 loading in well-trained cyclistsJ Strength Cond Res.(2012 Oct)
    85. Creatine - Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, Mueller KD, Lewis JDEffect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adultsJ Strength Cond Res.(2011 Jul)
    86. Sodium Bicarbonate - Marx JO, Gordon SE, Vos NH, Nindl BC, Gómez AL, Volek JS, Pedro J, Ratamess N, Newton RU, French DN, Rubin MR, Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJEffect of alkalosis on plasma epinephrine responses to high intensity cycle exercise in humansEur J Appl Physiol.(2002 May)
    87. Pyruvate - Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, O'Bryant HS, Hoke T, Utter AC, Johnson RL, Boros R, Hruby J, Pierce KC, Stone ME, Garner BEffects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football playersInt J Sport Nutr.(1999 Jun)
    88. HMB - Slater G, Jenkins D, Logan P, Lee H, Vukovich M, Rathmacher JA, Hahn AGBeta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained menInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2001 Sep)
    89. Vitamin D - Małgorzata Magdalena Michalczyk, Artur Gołaś, Adam Maszczyk, Piotr Kaczka, Adam ZającInfluence of Sunlight and Oral D 3 Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D Concentration and Exercise Performance in Elite Soccer PlayersNutrients.(2020 May 4)
    90. Creatine - Tarnopolsky M, Mahoney D, Thompson T, Naylor H, Doherty TJCreatine monohydrate supplementation does not increase muscle strength, lean body mass, or muscle phosphocreatine in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1Muscle Nerve.(2004 Jan)
    91. Black Ginger - Wasuntarawat C, Pengnet S, Walaikavinan N, Kamkaew N, Bualoang T, Toskulkao C, McConell GNo effect of acute ingestion of Thai ginseng (Kaempferia parviflora) on sprint and endurance exercise performance in humansJ Sports Sci.(2010 Sep)
    92. Spirulina - Artur Juszkiewicz, Piotr Basta, Elżbieta Petriczko, Bogusław Machaliński, Jerzy Trzeciak, Karolina Łuczkowska, Anna Skarpańska-StejnbornAn attempt to induce an immunomodulatory effect in rowers with spirulina extractJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2018 Feb 20)
    93. Ursolic Acid - Bang HS, Seo DY, Chung YM, Oh KM, Park JJ, Arturo F, Jeong SH, Kim N, Han JUrsolic Acid-induced elevation of serum irisin augments muscle strength during resistance training in menKorean J Physiol Pharmacol.(2014 Oct)
    94. Creatine - Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, Candow DG, Mahoney D, Tarnopolsky MEffect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetariansMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2003 Nov)
    95. Creatine - Trent J Herda, Travis W Beck, Eric D Ryan, Abbie E Smith, Ashley A Walter, Michael J Hartman, Jeffrey R Stout, Joel T CramerEffects of creatine monohydrate and polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength, endurance, and power outputJ Strength Cond Res.(2009 May)
    96. Chromium - Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Anderson RA, Davey SL, Hinton J, Evans WJEffects of resistive training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle size in older womenInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2002 Jun)
    97. Citrulline - Eric T Trexler, Adam M Persky, Eric D Ryan, Todd A Schwartz, Lee Stoner, Abbie E Smith-RyanAcute Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on High-Intensity Strength and Power Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisSports Med.(2019 May)
    98. Creatine - Deminice R, Rosa FT, Franco GS, Jordao AA, de Freitas ECEffects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers after repeated-sprint exercise in humansNutrition.(2013 Sep)
    99. Sodium Bicarbonate - Price MJ, Simons CThe effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on high-intensity intermittent running and subsequent performanceJ Strength Cond Res.(2010 Jul)
    100. Creatine - Hass CJ, Collins MA, Juncos JLResistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trialNeurorehabil Neural Repair.(2007 Mar-Apr)
    101. Sodium Bicarbonate - Kilding AE, Overton C, Gleave JEffects of caffeine, sodium bicarbonate, and their combined ingestion on high-intensity cycling performanceInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2012 Jun)
    102. Creatine - Vorgerd M, Grehl T, Jager M, Muller K, Freitag G, Patzold T, Bruns N, Fabian K, Tegenthoff M, Mortier W, Luttmann A, Zange J, Malin JPCreatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trialArch Neurol.(2000 Jul)
    103. Creatine - Volek JS, Ratamess NA, Rubin MR, Gómez AL, French DN, McGuigan MM, Scheett TP, Sharman MJ, Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJThe effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreachingEur J Appl Physiol.(2004 May)
    104. Creatine - Lamontagne-Lacasse M, Nadon R, Goulet EDEffect of Creatine Supplementation on Jumping Performance in Elite Volleyball PlayersInt J Sports Physiol Perform.(2011 Aug 22)
    105. Sodium Bicarbonate - Price M, Moss P, Rance SEffects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2003 Aug)
    106. Sodium Bicarbonate - Kupcis PD, Slater GJ, Pruscino CL, Kemp JGInfluence of sodium bicarbonate on performance and hydration in lightweight rowingInt J Sports Physiol Perform.(2012 Mar)
    107. Betaine - Pryor JL, Craig SA, Swensen TEffect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performanceJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2012 Apr 3)
    108. Sodium Bicarbonate - Brien DM, McKenzie DCThe effect of induced alkalosis and acidosis on plasma lactate and work output in elite oarsmenEur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol.(1989)
    109. Sodium Bicarbonate - Mueller SM, Gehrig SM, Frese S, Wagner CA, Boutellier U, Toigo MMultiday acute sodium bicarbonate intake improves endurance capacity and reduces acidosis in menJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2013 Mar 26)
    110. Citrulline - Eric T Trexler, Dale S Keith, Todd A Schwartz, Eric D Ryan, Lee Stoner, Adam M Persky, Abbie E Smith-RyanEffects of Citrulline Malate and Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Blood Flow, Energy Metabolism, and Performance During Maximum Effort Leg Extension ExerciseJ Strength Cond Res.(2019 Sep)
    111. D-Aspartic Acid - Darryn S. Willoughby, Brian Leutholtzd-Aspartic acid supplementation combined with 28 days of heavy resistance training has no effect on body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in resistance-trained menNutrition Research.()
    112. Ashwagandha - Raut AA, Rege NN, Tadvi FM, Solanki PV, Kene KR, Shirolkar SG, Pandey SN, Vaidya RA, Vaidya ABExploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteersJ Ayurveda Integr Med.(2012 Jul)
    113. Creatine - Schneider-Gold C, Beck M, Wessig C, George A, Kele H, Reiners K, Toyka KVCreatine monohydrate in DM2/PROMM: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Proximal myotonic myopathyNeurology.(2003 Feb 11)
    114. Creatine - Rawson ES, Volek JSEffects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performanceJ Strength Cond Res.(2003 Nov)
    115. Beta-Alanine - Kern BD, Robinson TLEffects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football playersJ Strength Cond Res.(2011 Jul)
    116. L-Carnitine - Jacobs PL, Goldstein ERLong-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplemention and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performanceJ Int Soc Sports Nutr.(2010 Oct 28)
    117. Rhodiola Rosea - Jówko E, Sadowski J, Długołęcka B, Gierczuk D, Opaszowski B, Cieśliński IEffects of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on mental performance, physical capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy menJ Sport Health Sci.(2018 Oct)
    118. Creatine - Netreba I, Shenkman BS, Popov DV, Tarasova OS, Vdovina AB, Khotchenkov VP, Stekhanova TN, Vinogradova OLCreatine as a metabolic controller of skeletal muscles structure and function in strength exercises in humansRoss Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova.(2006 Jan)
    119. Chromium - Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Ostlund RE Jr, Anderson RA, Farrell PA, Evans WJResistive training and chromium picolinate: effects on inositols and liver and kidney functions in older adultsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2004 Aug)
    120. Beta-Alanine - Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale CEffects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysisAmino Acids.(2012 Jul)
    121. Creatine - Pluim BM, Ferrauti A, Broekhof F, Deutekom M, Gotzmann A, Kuipers H, Weber KThe effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific trainingBr J Sports Med.(2006 Jun)
    122. Leucine - Ispoglou T, King RF, Polman RC, Zanker CDaily L-leucine supplementation in novice trainees during a 12-week weight training programInt J Sports Physiol Perform.(2011 Mar)
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