Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

Last Updated: September 21, 2023

LDL carries cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body. Because higher levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) tend to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), LDL-C is often called the “bad cholesterol” (as opposed to HDL-C) — but the reality is more complex.

Summary

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are proteins that carry hydrophobic molecules through extracellular fluid. More precisely, they carry cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body, via the bloodstream.

The greater the number of LDL particles (LDL-P) in the blood, the more likely some will pass into artery walls, become oxidized, and kickstart plaque formation,[1] leading to atherosclerosis. Therefore, to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), LDL-P matters more than LDL cholesterol (LDL-C),[2][3] which is simply a measure of the amount of the cholesterol carried by LDL particles.

If two people have the same LDL-C but one has cholesterol-rich LDL (large, “fluffy” particles) and the other cholesterol-poor LDL (smaller, denser particles), the second will have a greater LDL-P (more LDL particles total) and be at greater risk of heart disease.

To predict heart disease, LDL-P (the number of LDL particles) matters more than LDL-C (the amount of cholesterol those particles carry). There is one molecule of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in each LDL particle, so apoB is a good estimate of LDL-P.

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Update History
2023-09-21 00:30:03

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References
  1. ^Tabas I, Williams KJ, Borén JSubendothelial lipoprotein retention as the initiating process in atherosclerosis: update and therapeutic implicationsCirculation.(2007 Oct 16)
  2. ^Allaire J, Vors C, Couture P, Lamarche BLDL particle number and size and cardiovascular risk: anything new under the sun?Curr Opin Lipidol.(2017 Jun)
  3. ^Otvos JD, Mora S, Shalaurova I, Greenland P, Mackey RH, Goff DC JrClinical implications of discordance between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and particle numberJ Clin Lipidol.(2011 Mar-Apr)
Examine Database References
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  44. Cocoa Extract - Balzer J, Rassaf T, Heiss C, Kleinbongard P, Lauer T, Merx M, Heussen N, Gross HB, Keen CL, Schroeter H, Kelm MSustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trialJ Am Coll Cardiol.(2008 Jun 3)
  45. Fish Oil - Goh YK, Jumpsen JA, Ryan EA, Clandinin MTEffect of omega 3 fatty acid on plasma lipids, cholesterol and lipoprotein fatty acid content in NIDDM patientsDiabetologia.(1997 Jan)
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  57. Chromium - Preuss HG, Wallerstedt D, Talpur N, Tutuncuoglu SO, Echard B, Myers A, Bui M, Bagchi DEffects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot studyJ Med.(2000)
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  88. Kefir - Yasamin Fathi, Shiva Faghih, Mohammad Javad Zibaeenezhad, Sayed Hamid Reza TabatabaeiKefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trialEur J Nutr.(2016 Feb)
  89. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Løvås K, Røst TH, Skorve J, Ulvik RJ, Gudbrandsen OA, Bohov P, Wensaas AJ, Rustan AC, Berge RK, Husebye ESTetradecylthioacetic acid attenuates dyslipidaemia in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, possibly by dual PPAR-alpha/delta activation and increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidationDiabetes Obes Metab.(2009 Apr)
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  91. Paleolithic Diet - Ehsan Ghaedi, Mohammad Mohammadi, Hamed Mohammadi, Nahid Ramezani-Jolfaie, Janmohamad Malekzadeh, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh, Amin Salehi-AbargoueiEffects of a Paleolithic Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsAdv Nutr.(2019 Jul 1)
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  93. L-Carnitine - Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Cristiano Capurso, Anna M Colacicco, Alessia D'Introno, Cristina Fontana, Sabrina A Capurso, Francesco Torres, Anna M Gadaleta, Aleardo Koverech, Antonio Capurso, Francesco PanzaEfficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with L-carnitine and simvastatin in lowering lipoprotein(a) serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAtherosclerosis.(2006 Oct)
  94. Ketogenic Diet - Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JSVery low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets affect fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia differently in overweight menJ Nutr.(2004 Apr)
  95. Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) - Kelly JJ, Lawson JA, Campbell LV, Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Whitworth JA, O'Sullivan AJEffects of nicotinic acid on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in healthy subjectsJ Hum Hypertens.(2000 Sep)
  96. Garlic - Phelps S, Harris WSGarlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibilityLipids.(1993 May)
  97. Quercetin - Talirevic E, Jelena SQuercetin in the treatment of dyslipidemiaMed Arh.(2012)
  98. Vegan Diet - Li SS, Blanco Mejia S, Lytvyn L, Stewart SE, Viguiliouk E, Ha V, de Souza RJ, Leiter LA, Kendall CWC, Jenkins DJA, Sievenpiper JLEffect of Plant Protein on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsJ Am Heart Assoc.(2017 Dec 20)
  99. Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) - Blond E, Rieusset J, Alligier M, Lambert-Porcheron S, Bendridi N, Gabert L, Chetiveaux M, Debard C, Chauvin MA, Normand S, Roth H, de Gouville AC, Krempf M, Vidal H, Goudable J, Laville M, “Niacin” Study GroupNicotinic acid effects on insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid metabolism: an in vivo to in vitro studyHorm Metab Res.(2014 Jun)
  100. Black seed - Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, Asgary S, Ghannadi AClinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trialMed Arh.(2012)
  101. Coenzyme Q10 - Mohseni M, Vafa M, Zarrati M, Shidfar F, Hajimiresmail SJ, Rahimi Forushani ABeneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Intereukin-6 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Reduction, Preliminary Results of a Double-blind Trial in Acute Myocardial InfarctionInt J Prev Med.(2015 Aug 7)
  102. Curcumin - Cicero AFG, Sahebkar A, Fogacci F, Bove M, Giovannini M, Borghi CEffects of phytosomal curcumin on anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, cortisolemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease indices: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialEur J Nutr.(2019 Feb 22)
  103. Blueberry - Arpita Basu, Mei Du, Misti J Leyva, Karah Sanchez, Nancy M Betts, Mingyuan Wu, Christopher E Aston, Timothy J LyonsBlueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  104. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Stote KS, Baer DJ, Spears K, Paul DR, Harris GK, Rumpler WV, Strycula P, Najjar SS, Ferrucci L, Ingram DK, Longo DL, Mattson MPA controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2007 Apr)
  105. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio PaoliEffects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained malesJ Transl Med.(2016 Oct 13)
  106. Policosanol - Mirkin A, Mas R, Martinto M, Boccanera R, Robertis A, Poudes R, Fuster A, Lastreto E, Yañez M, Irico G, McCook B, Farré AEfficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal womenInt J Clin Pharmacol Res.(2001)
  107. Chromium - Król E, Krejpcio Z, Byks H, Bogdański P, Pupek-Musialik DEffects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patientsBiol Trace Elem Res.(2011 Nov)
  108. Curcumin - Kim SW, Ha KC, Choi EK, Jung SY, Kim MG, Kwon DY, Yang HJ, Kim MJ, Kang HJ, Back HI, Kim SY, Park SH, Baek HY, Kim YJ, Lee JY, Chae SWThe effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled studyBMC Complement Altern Med.(2013 Mar 8)
  109. Magnesium - Lee S, Park HK, Son SP, Lee CW, Kim IJ, Kim HJEffects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.(2009 Dec)
  110. Fish Oil - Paula Simplício da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Dias de Brito, Claudia Santos de Aguiar Cardoso, Cristiane Fonseca de Almeida, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Andrea Silvestre de SousaOmega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical studyNutr J.(2017 Jun 9)
  111. Vegan Diet - Rami S Najjar, Carolyn E Moore, Baxter D MontgomeryConsumption of a defined, plant-based diet reduces lipoprotein(a), inflammation, and other atherogenic lipoproteins and particles within 4 weeksClin Cardiol.(2018 Aug)
  112. Olive Leaf Extract - Marrugat J, Covas MI, Fitó M, Schröder H, Miró-Casas E, Gimeno E, López-Sabater MC, de la Torre R, Farré M; SOLOS InvestigatorsEffects of differing phenolic content in dietary olive oils on lipids and LDL oxidation--a randomized controlled trialEur J Nutr.(2004 Jun)
  113. DHEA - Jedrzejuk D, Medras M, Milewicz A, Demissie MDehydroepiandrosterone replacement in healthy men with age-related decline of DHEA-S: effects on fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolismAging Male.(2003 Sep)
  114. Potatoes - Siew Ling Tey, Rachel Brown, Andrew Gray, Alexandra Chisholm, Conor DelahuntyNuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weightJ Nutr Metab.(2011)
  115. L-Carnitine - Joanna J Samulak, Angelika K Sawicka, Emilia Samborowska, Robert A OlekPlasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide following Cessation of L-carnitine Supplementation in Healthy Aged WomenNutrients.(2019 Jun 13)
  116. Saffron - Milajerdi A, Jazayeri S, Hashemzadeh N, Shirzadi E, Derakhshan Z, Djazayeri A, Akhondzadeh SThe effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) hydroalcoholic extract on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A triple-blinded randomized clinical trialJ Res Med Sci.(2018 Feb 20)
  117. Curcumin - Usharani P, Mateen AA, Naidu MU, Raju YS, Chandra NEffect of NCB-02, atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 8-week studyDrugs R D.(2008)
  118. Cocoa Extract - Muniyappa R, Hall G, Kolodziej TL, Karne RJ, Crandon SK, Quon MJCocoa consumption for 2 wk enhances insulin-mediated vasodilatation without improving blood pressure or insulin resistance in essential hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2008 Dec)
  119. Saffron - Nasim Abedimanesh, S Zahra Bathaie, Saeed Abedimanesh, Behrooz Motlagh, Ahmad Separham, Alireza OstadrahimiSaffron and crocin improved appetite, dietary intakes and body composition in patients with coronary artery diseaseJ Cardiovasc Thorac Res.(2017)
  120. Japanese Knotweed - Ghanim H, Sia CL, Abuaysheh S, Korzeniewski K, Patnaik P, Marumganti A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona PAn antiinflammatory and reactive oxygen species suppressive effects of an extract of Polygonum cuspidatum containing resveratrolJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2010 Sep)
  121. Cocoa Extract - Fraga CG, Actis-Goretta L, Ottaviani JI, Carrasquedo F, Lotito SB, Lazarus S, Schmitz HH, Keen CLRegular consumption of a flavanol-rich chocolate can improve oxidant stress in young soccer playersClin Dev Immunol.(2005 Mar)
  122. Fish Oil - Alison M Hill, Jonathan D Buckley, Karen J Murphy, and Peter RC HoweCombining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factorsThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.()
  123. Cocoa Extract - West SG, McIntyre MD, Piotrowski MJ, Poupin N, Miller DL, Preston AG, Wagner P, Groves LF, Skulas-Ray ACEffects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adultsBr J Nutr.(2014 Feb)
  124. Curcumin - Adibian M, Hodaei H, Nikpayam O, Sohrab G, Hekmatdoost A, Hedayati MThe effects of curcumin supplementation on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum adiponectin, and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialPhytother Res.(2019 May)
  125. Fish Oil - Boberg M, Pollare T, Siegbahn A, Vessby BSupplementation with n-3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitusEur J Clin Invest.(1992 Oct)
  126. Hesperidin - Mohammadi M, Ramezani-Jolfaie N, Lorzadeh E, Khoshbakht Y, Salehi-Abargouei AHesperidin, a major flavonoid in orange juice, might not affect lipid profile and blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trialsPhytother Res.(2019 Mar)
  127. Lactobacillus Reuteri - Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Di Pietro E, Simon RR, Prakash SEvaluation of clinical safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 supplement capsule: a randomized control trialRegul Toxicol Pharmacol.(2012 Jul)
  128. Curcumin - Ferguson JJA, Wolska A, Remaley AT, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg MLBread enriched with phytosterols with or without curcumin modulates lipoprotein profiles in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trialFood Funct.(2019 May 22)
  129. Spirulina - R Samuels, U V Mani, U M Iyer, U S NayakHypocholesterolemic effect of spirulina in patients with hyperlipidemic nephrotic syndromeJ Med Food.(Summer 2002)
  130. Medium-chain Triglycerides - Han JR, Deng B, Sun J, Chen CG, Corkey BE, Kirkland JL, Ma J, Guo WEffects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjectsMetabolism.(2007 Jul)
  131. Rooibos - Débora Villaño, Monia Pecorari, Maria Francesca Testa, Anna Raguzzini, Angelique Stalmach, Alan Crozier, Claudio Tubili, Mauro SerafiniUnfermented and fermented rooibos teas (Aspalathus linearis) increase plasma total antioxidant capacity in healthy humansFood Chemistry.()
  132. Garcinia - Kim JE, Jeon SM, Park KH, Lee WS, Jeong TS, McGregor RA, Choi MSDoes Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trialNutr J.(2011 Sep 21)
  133. Saffron - Babak Roshanravan, Saeed Samarghandian, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Alireza Amirabadizadeh, Farhad Saeedi, Tahereh FarkhondehMetabolic Impact of Saffron and Crocin: An Updated Systematic and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical TrialsArch Physiol Biochem.(2020 Feb 4)
  134. Fish Oil - Poppitt SD, Howe CA, Lithander FE, Silvers KM, Lin RB, Croft J, Ratnasabapathy Y, Gibson RA, Anderson CSEffects of moderate-dose omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk factors and mood after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trialStroke.(2009 Nov)
  135. Vegan Diet - Ann-Charlotte Elkan, Beatrice Sjöberg, Björn Kolsrud, Bo Ringertz, Ingiäld Hafström, Johan FrostegårdGluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized studyArthritis Res Ther.(2008)
  136. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CCocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensivesHypertension.(2005 Aug)
  137. Spirulina - Lee EH, Park JE, Choi YJ, Huh KB, Kim WYA randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patientsNutr Res Pract.(2008 Winter)
  138. Fish Oil - Schectman G, Kaul S, Kissebah AHEffect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDMDiabetes.(1988 Nov)
  139. Vegan Diet - Neal D Barnard, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Liz Brandon, Minh Nguyen, Andrea Goergen, Taylor Horne, Gabriel F do Nascimento, Kundanika Lakkadi, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Hana KahleovaA Mediterranean Diet and Low-Fat Vegan Diet to Improve Body Weight and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized, Cross-over TrialJ Am Coll Nutr.(2021 Feb 5)
  140. Theanine - Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Chisato Wakabayashi, Takamasa Noda, Hayato Ozawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Hiroshi KunugiEffects of chronic l-theanine administration in patients with major depressive disorder: an open-label studyActa Neuropsychiatr.(2017 Apr)
  141. Spirulina - Juárez-Oropeza MA, Mascher D, Torres-Durán PV, Farias JM, Paredes-Carbajal MCEffects of dietary Spirulina on vascular reactivityJ Med Food.(2009 Feb)
  142. Astaxanthin - Karppi J, Rissanen TH, Nyyssönen K, Kaikkonen J, Olsson AG, Voutilainen S, Salonen JTEffects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidationInt J Vitam Nutr Res.(2007 Jan)
  143. Policosanol - Illnait J, Castaño G, Alvarez E, Fernández L, Mas R, Mendoza S, Gamez REffects of policosanol (10 mg/d) versus aspirin (100 mg/d) in patients with intermittent claudication: a 10-week, randomized, comparative studyAngiology.(2008 Jun-Jul)
  144. Fish Oil - Maki KC, McKenney JM, Reeves MS, Lubin BC, Dicklin MREffects of adding prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters to simvastatin (20 mg/day) on lipids and lipoprotein particles in men and women with mixed dyslipidemiaAm J Cardiol.(2008 Aug 15)
  145. Fish Oil - Annuzzi G, Rivellese A, Capaldo B, Di Marino L, Iovine C, Marotta G, Riccardi GA controlled study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patientsAtherosclerosis.(1991 Mar)
  146. Magnesium - Mooren FC, Krüger K, Völker K, Golf SW, Wadepuhl M, Kraus AOral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trialDiabetes Obes Metab.(2011 Mar)
  147. Whey Protein - Pal S, Ellis V, Dhaliwal SEffects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individualsBr J Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  148. Pomegranate seed oil - Mirmiran P, Fazeli MR, Asghari G, Shafiee A, Azizi FEffect of pomegranate seed oil on hyperlipidaemic subjects: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trialBr J Nutr.(2010 Aug)
  149. Curcumin - Funamoto M, Sunagawa Y, Katanasaka Y, Miyazaki Y, Imaizumi A, Kakeya H, Yamakage H, Satoh-Asahara N, Komiyama M, Wada H, Hasegawa K, Morimoto THighly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPDInt J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis.(2016 Aug 26)
  150. Policosanol - Kassis AN, Jones PJLack of cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Cuban sugar cane policosanols in hypercholesterolemic personsAm J Clin Nutr.(2006 Nov)
  151. Krill Oil - Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch LEvaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemiaAltern Med Rev.(2004 Dec)
  152. Black seed - Kalus U, Pruss A, Bystron J, Jurecka M, Smekalova A, Lichius JJ, Kiesewetter HEffect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseasesPhytother Res.(2003 Dec)
  153. Pyruvate - Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Hoyson R, Janosky JE, Wolf RPyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: effects on plasma lipid concentrations and body composition in hyperlipidemic patientsAm J Clin Nutr.(1994 Feb)
  154. Potatoes - E A Johnston, K S Petersen, P M Kris-EthertonDaily intake of non-fried potato does not affect markers of glycaemia and is associated with better diet quality compared with refined grains: a randomised, crossover study in healthy adultsBr J Nutr.(2020 May 14)
  155. Panax Ginseng (Korean Ginseng) - Kim SY, Seo SK, Choi YM, Jeon YE, Lim KJ, Cho S, Choi YS, Lee BSEffects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trialMenopause.(2012 Apr)
  156. Ephedrine - Boozer CN, Daly PA, Homel P, Solomon JL, Blanchard D, Nasser JA, Strauss R, Meredith THerbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trialInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord.(2002 May)
  157. Rose Hip - Andersson U, Berger K, Högberg A, Landin-Olsson M, Holm CEffects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese personsEur J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
  158. Fish Oil - Schuchardt JP, Neubronner J, Kressel G, Merkel M, von Schacky C, Hahn AModerate doses of EPA and DHA from re-esterified triacylglycerols but not from ethyl-esters lower fasting serum triacylglycerols in statin-treated dyslipidemic subjects: Results from a six month randomized controlled trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Dec)
  159. Fish Oil - Morgan WA, Raskin P, Rosenstock JA comparison of fish oil or corn oil supplements in hyperlipidemic subjects with NIDDMDiabetes Care.(1995 Jan)
  160. Eleuthero - Lee YJ, Chung HY, Kwak HK, Yoon SThe effects of A. senticosus supplementation on serum lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and lymphocyte DNA damage in postmenopausal womenBiochem Biophys Res Commun.(2008 Oct 10)
  161. Astaxanthin - Chen JT, Kotani KEffects of Astaxanthin on Liver and Leukocyte Parameters in Healthy Climacteric Women: Preliminary DataJ Med Food.(2017 Jul)
  162. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Racine NM, Watras AC, Carrel AL, Allen DB, McVean JJ, Clark RR, O'Brien AR, O'Shea M, Scott CE, Schoeller DAEffect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese childrenAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 May)
  163. Black seed - Abdullah O Bamosa, Huda Kaatabi, Fatma M Lebdaa, Abdul-Muhssen Al Elq, Ali Al-SultanbEffect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusIndian J Physiol Pharmacol.(Oct-Dec 2010)
  164. Cocoa Extract - Hamed MS, Gambert S, Bliden KP, Bailon O, Singla A, Antonino MJ, Hamed F, Tantry US, Gurbel PADark chocolate effect on platelet activity, C-reactive protein and lipid profile: a pilot studySouth Med J.(2008 Dec)
  165. Fish Oil - M Gorety Jacobo-Cejudo, Roxana Valdés-Ramos, Ana L Guadarrama-López, Rosa-Virgen Pardo-Morales, Beatriz E Martínez-Carrillo, Laurence S HarbigeEffect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus PatientsNutrients.(2017 Jun 3)
  166. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Anne J Wanders, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Els Siebelink, Martijn B KatanEffect of a high intake of conjugated linoleic acid on lipoprotein levels in healthy human subjectsPLoS One.(2010 Feb 3)
  167. Grape Seed Extract - Vigna GB, Costantini F, Aldini G, Carini M, Catapano A, Schena F, Tangerini A, Zanca R, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P, Mezzetti A, Fellin R, Maffei Facino REffect of a standardized grape seed extract on low-density lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation in heavy smokersMetabolism.(2003 Oct)
  168. Spirulina - Reyhaneh Yousefi, Azadeh Mottaghi, Atoosa SaidpourSpirulina platensis effectively ameliorates anthropometric measurements and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese or overweight healthy individuals: A randomized controlled trialComplement Ther Med.(2018 Oct)
  169. Olive Leaf Extract - Castañer O, Covas MI, Khymenets O, Nyyssonen K, Konstantinidou V, Zunft HF, de la Torre R, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Vila J, Fitó MProtection of LDL from oxidation by olive oil polyphenols is associated with a downregulation of CD40-ligand expression and its downstream products in vivo in humansAm J Clin Nutr.(2012 May)
  170. L-Carnitine - Chen Y, Abbate M, Tang L, Cai G, Gong Z, Wei R, Zhou J, Chen XL-Carnitine supplementation for adults with end-stage kidney disease requiring maintenance hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysisAm J Clin Nutr.(2014 Feb)
  171. Coenzyme Q10 - Singh RB, Neki NS, Kartikey K, Pella D, Kumar A, Niaz MA, Thakur ASEffect of coenzyme Q10 on risk of atherosclerosis in patients with recent myocardial infarctionMol Cell Biochem.(2003 Apr)
  172. Berberine - Derosa G, D'Angelo A, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, Maffioli PEffects of berberine on lipid profile in subjects with low cardiovascular riskExpert Opin Biol Ther.(2013 Apr)
  173. Grape Juice - Dohadwala MM, Hamburg NM, Holbrook M, Kim BH, Duess MA, Levit A, Titas M, Chung WB, Vincent FB, Caiano TL, Frame AA, Keaney JF Jr, Vita JAEffects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr.(2010 Nov)
  174. Thiamine (Vitamin B1) - Alaei-Shahmiri F, Soares MJ, Zhao Y, Sherriff JThe impact of thiamine supplementation on blood pressure, serum lipids and C-reactive protein in individuals with hyperglycemia: a randomised, double-blind cross-over trialDiabetes Metab Syndr.(2015 Oct-Dec)
  175. Red Clover Extract - Chedraui P, San Miguel G, Hidalgo L, Morocho N, Ross SEffect of Trifolium pratense-derived isoflavones on the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with increased body mass indexGynecol Endocrinol.(2008 Nov)
  176. Policosanol - Swanson B, Keithley JK, Sha BE, Fogg L, Nerad J, Novak RM, Adeyemi O, Spear GTPolicosanol for managing human immunodeficiency virus-related dyslipidemia in a medically underserved population: a randomized, controlled clinical trialAltern Ther Health Med.(2011 Mar-Apr)
  177. L-Carnitine - Giuseppe Derosa, Arrigo F G Cicero, Antonio Gaddi, Amedeo Mugellini, Leonardina Ciccarelli, Roberto FogariThe effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusClin Ther.(2003 May)
  178. Astaxanthin - Mashhadi NS, Zakerkish M, Mohammadiasl J, Zarei M, Mohammadshahi M, Haghighizadeh MHAstaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAsia Pac J Clin Nutr.(2018)
  179. Ketogenic Diet - Urbain P, Strom L, Morawski L, Wehrle A, Deibert P, Bertz HImpact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adultsNutr Metab (Lond).(2017 Feb 20)
  180. DHEA - Libè R, Barbetta L, Dall'Asta C, Salvaggio F, Gala C, Beck-Peccoz P, Ambrosi BEffects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on hormonal, metabolic and behavioral status in patients with hypoadrenalismJ Endocrinol Invest.(2004 Sep)
  181. Soy Lecithin - Mourad AM, de Carvalho Pincinato E, Mazzola PG, Sabha M, Moriel PInfluence of soy lecithin administration on hypercholesterolemiaCholesterol.(2010)
  182. Fish Oil - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Schild AL, Rains TMPrescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and modestly reduce pancreatic β-cell response in subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemiaProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Sep-Oct)
  183. Curcumin - Campbell MS, Ouyang A, I M K, Charnigo RJ, Westgate PM, Fleenor BSInfluence of enhanced bioavailable curcumin on obesity-associated cardiovascular disease risk factors and arterial function: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trialNutrition.(2019 Jun)
  184. L-Carnitine - Mansooreh Samimi, Mehri Jamilian, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Maryam Rahimi, Banafsheh Tajbakhsh, Zatollah AsemiOral carnitine supplementation reduces body weight and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialClin Endocrinol (Oxf).(2016 Jun)
  185. Amla - Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Ayesha Ramzan, Amanat Ali, Maqsood AhmadEffect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patientsInt J Food Sci Nutr.(2011 Sep)
  186. L-Carnitine - Hadier M El-Sheikh, Sahar M El-Haggar, Tamer A ElbedewyComparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patientsDiabetes Metab Syndr.(Jan-Feb 2019)
  187. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Laso N, Brugué E, Vidal J, Ros E, Arnaiz JA, Carné X, Vidal S, Mas S, Deulofeu R, Lafuente AEffects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome componentsBr J Nutr.(2007 Oct)
  188. Chia seeds - Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, Jin FChia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adultsNutr Res.(2009 Jun)
  189. Yerba Mate - de Morais EC, Stefanuto A, Klein GA, Boaventura BC, de Andrade F, Wazlawik E, Di Pietro PF, Maraschin M, da Silva ELConsumption of yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) improves serum lipid parameters in healthy dyslipidemic subjects and provides an additional LDL-cholesterol reduction in individuals on statin therapyJ Agric Food Chem.(2009 Sep 23)
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  191. Hesperidin - Rizza S, Muniyappa R, Iantorno M, Kim JA, Chen H, Pullikotil P, Senese N, Tesauro M, Lauro D, Cardillo C, Quon MJCitrus polyphenol hesperidin stimulates production of nitric oxide in endothelial cells while improving endothelial function and reducing inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndromeJ Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2011 May)
  192. Betaine - Schwab U, Alfthan G, Aro A, Uusitupa MLong-term effect of betaine on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Nutr.(2011 Jan)
  193. Curcumin - Yang H, Xu W, Zhou Z, Liu J, Li X, Chen L, Weng J, Yu ZCurcumin attenuates urinary excretion of albumin in type II diabetic patients with enhancing nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) system and repressing inflammatory signaling efficaciesExp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes.(2015 Jun)
  194. Grape Juice - O'Byrne DJ, Devaraj S, Grundy SM, Jialal IComparison of the antioxidant effects of Concord grape juice flavonoids alpha-tocopherol on markers of oxidative stress in healthy adultsAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Dec)
  195. Horse Chestnut - Rainer KochComparative study of Venostasin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiencyPhytother Res.(2002 Mar)
  196. Ashwagandha - Auddy, B, et alA Standardized Withania Somnifera Extract Significantly Reduces Stress-Related Parameters in Chronically Stressed Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyJ Am Nut Assn.()
  197. Betaine - Schwab U, Törrönen A, Toppinen L, Alfthan G, Saarinen M, Aro A, Uusitupa MBetaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjectsAm J Clin Nutr.(2002 Nov)
  198. Spirulina - Elias E Mazokopakis, Maria G Papadomanolaki, Andreas A Fousteris, Dimitrios A Kotsiris, Ioannis M Lampadakis, Emmanuel S GanotakisThe hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective pilot studyAnn Gastroenterol.(2014)
  199. Red Clover Extract - Nestel P, Cehun M, Chronopoulos A, DaSilva L, Teede H, McGrath BA biochanin-enriched isoflavone from red clover lowers LDL cholesterol in menEur J Clin Nutr.(2004 Mar)
  200. Vegan Diet - Hana Kahleova, Andrea Tura, Martin Hill, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical TrialNutrients.(2018 Feb 9)
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