High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

Last Updated: November 2, 2023

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a particle that carries cholesterol from your blood to your liver. Low levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is why HDL-C is often called the “good cholesterol” (as opposed to LDL-C) — but the reality is more complex.

HDL-C and heart disease

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are particles that carry cholesterol in the blood stream. Low levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C; a marker of HDL levels) in the blood has long been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).[1] As a result, HDL is commonly known as "good cholesterol". However, it's increasingly clear that HDL-C is not inherently good or bad.

Studies testing whether higher HDL lowers the risk heart disease have, by and large, failed to find a benefit. Whether HDL is raised by medication (e.g., CEPT inhibitors, high-dose niacin)[2] or genetic differences,[3] the results are similar — no apparent effect on CVD risk.

One explanation for this apparent paradox is that HDL has no role in heart disease and low HDL is merely a marker of disease and unhealthy habits. This is certainly possible, since HDL is lowered by insulin resistance (the cause of type 2 diabetes)[4] and physical inactivity,[5] among other things.

Alternatively, it's possible that what's actually important is HDL functionality, rather than merely HDL levels. According to this hypothesis, some HDL particles have protective effects (e.g., removing cholesterol from arteries), whereas some HDL particles may actually have harmful effects (e.g., promoting inflammation).[6] As a result, increasing HDL-C levels won't reduce the risk of CVD unless it reliably increases the protective functions of HDL particles. However, there is currently much uncertainty regarding these supposedly protective properties of HDL (e.g., how to measure them and how to target them).

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  1. ^Simha V, Kudva YCHDL Cholesterol Story Is Dead: Long Live HDL!Diabetes.(2016-Oct)
  2. ^Navjot Kaur, Avaneesh Pandey, Harish Negi, Nusrat Shafiq, Srinivas Reddy, Harpreet Kaur, Neelima Chadha, Samir MalhotraEffect of HDL-raising drugs on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-regressionPLoS One.(2014 Apr 11)
  3. ^Richardson TG, Sanderson E, Palmer TM, Ala-Korpela M, Ference BA, Davey Smith G, Holmes MVEvaluating the relationship between circulating lipoprotein lipids and apolipoproteins with risk of coronary heart disease: A multivariable Mendelian randomisation analysis.PLoS Med.(2020-Mar)
  4. ^Ormazabal V, Nair S, Elfeky O, Aguayo C, Salomon C, Zuñiga FAAssociation between insulin resistance and the development of cardiovascular diseaseCardiovasc Diabetol.(2018 Aug 31)
  5. ^O'Donovan G, Stensel D, Hamer M, Stamatakis EThe association between leisure-time physical activity, low HDL-cholesterol and mortality in a pooled analysis of nine population-based cohorts.Eur J Epidemiol.(2017-Jul)
  6. ^Casula M, Colpani O, Xie S, Catapano AL, Baragetti AHDL in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: In Search of a Role.Cells.(2021-Jul-23)
  7. ^World Health OrganizationEffects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysis(2016)
  8. ^McQueen MJ, Hawken S, Wang X, Ounpuu S, Sniderman A, Probstfield J, Steyn K, Sanderson JE, Hasani M, Volkova E, Kazmi K, Yusuf S, INTERHEART study investigatorsLipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins as risk markers of myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): a case-control studyLancet.(2008 Jul 19)
  9. ^Walldius G, Jungner I, Aastveit AH, Holme I, Furberg CD, Sniderman ADThe apoB/apoA-I ratio is better than the cholesterol ratios to estimate the balance between plasma proatherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins and to predict coronary riskClin Chem Lab Med.(2004)
  10. ^da Luz PL, Cesena FH, Favarato D, Cerqueira ESComparison of serum lipid values in patients with coronary artery disease at 70 years of ageAm J Cardiol.(2005 Dec 15)
  11. ^da Luz PL, Favarato D, Faria-Neto JR Jr, Lemos P, Chagas ACHigh ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary diseaseClinics (Sao Paulo).(2008 Aug)
  12. ^Hanak V, Munoz J, Teague J, Stanley A Jr, Bittner VAccuracy of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for prediction of the low-density lipoprotein phenotype BAm J Cardiol.(2004 Jul 15)
Examine Database References
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  5. Fish Oil - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Schild AL, Rains TMPrescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and modestly reduce pancreatic β-cell response in subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemiaProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.(2011 Sep-Oct)
  6. L-Carnitine - Hadier M El-Sheikh, Sahar M El-Haggar, Tamer A ElbedewyComparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patientsDiabetes Metab Syndr.(Jan-Feb 2019)
  7. Fish Oil - Paula Simplício da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Dias de Brito, Claudia Santos de Aguiar Cardoso, Cristiane Fonseca de Almeida, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Andrea Silvestre de SousaOmega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical studyNutr J.(2017 Jun 9)
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  9. Royal Jelly - Morita H, Ikeda T, Kajita K, Fujioka K, Mori I, Okada H, Uno Y, Ishizuka TEffect of royal jelly ingestion for six months on healthy volunteersNutr J.(2012 Sep 21)
  10. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Moloney F, Yeow TP, Mullen A, Nolan JJ, Roche HMConjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusAm J Clin Nutr.(2004 Oct)
  11. Red Clover Extract - Blakesmith SJ, Lyons-Wall PM, George C, Joannou GE, Petocz P, Samman SEffects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal womenBr J Nutr.(2003 Apr)
  12. Black seed - Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, Asgary S, Ghannadi AClinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trialMed Arh.(2012)
  13. Red Clover Extract - Chedraui P, San Miguel G, Hidalgo L, Morocho N, Ross SEffect of Trifolium pratense-derived isoflavones on the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with increased body mass indexGynecol Endocrinol.(2008 Nov)
  14. Inositol - Minozzi M, D'Andrea G, Unfer VTreatment of hirsutism with myo-inositol: a prospective clinical studyReprod Biomed Online.(2008 Oct)
  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Nazare JA, de la Perrière AB, Bonnet F, Desage M, Peyrat J, Maitrepierre C, Louche-Pelissier C, Bruzeau J, Goudable J, Lassel T, Vidal H, Laville MDaily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjectsBr J Nutr.(2007 Feb)
  16. Curcumin - Yang H, Xu W, Zhou Z, Liu J, Li X, Chen L, Weng J, Yu ZCurcumin attenuates urinary excretion of albumin in type II diabetic patients with enhancing nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) system and repressing inflammatory signaling efficaciesExp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes.(2015 Jun)
  17. Jiaogulan - Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Ky PT, Hoa NK, Ostenson CGAntidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic PatientsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med.(2012)
  18. L-Carnitine - Fabio Galvano, Giovanni Li Volti, Michele Malaguarnera, Teresio Avitabile, Tijana Antic, Marco Vacante, Mariano MalaguarneraEffects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein(a) and apoprotein(a) in type 2 diabetes mellitusExpert Opin Pharmacother.(2009 Aug)
  19. Ketogenic Diet - Varady KA, Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Phillips SAImprovements in vascular health by a low-fat diet, but not a high-fat diet, are mediated by changes in adipocyte biologyNutr J.(2011 Jan 20)
  20. Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Blond E, Rieusset J, Alligier M, Lambert-Porcheron S, Bendridi N, Gabert L, Chetiveaux M, Debard C, Chauvin MA, Normand S, Roth H, de Gouville AC, Krempf M, Vidal H, Goudable J, Laville M, “Niacin” Study GroupNicotinic acid effects on insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid metabolism: an in vivo to in vitro studyHorm Metab Res.(2014 Jun)
  21. Rooibos - Marnewick JL, Rautenbach F, Venter I, Neethling H, Blackhurst DM, Wolmarans P, Macharia MEffects of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in adults at risk for cardiovascular diseaseJ Ethnopharmacol.(2011 Jan 7)
  22. HMB - Wei Hung, Tsung-Han Liu, Chung-Yu Chen, Chen-Kang ChangEffect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Supplementation During Energy Restriction in Female Judo AthletesJournal of Exercise Science & Fitness.()
  23. Whey Protein - Pal S, Ellis V, Dhaliwal SEffects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individualsBr J Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  24. Astaxanthin - Macdermid JC, Vincent JI, Gan BS, Grewal RA blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial on the use of astaxanthin as an adjunct to splinting in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndromeHand (N Y).(2012 Mar)
  25. Paleolithic Diet - Ehsan Ghaedi, Mohammad Mohammadi, Hamed Mohammadi, Nahid Ramezani-Jolfaie, Janmohamad Malekzadeh, Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh, Amin Salehi-AbargoueiEffects of a Paleolithic Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsAdv Nutr.(2019 Jul 1)
  26. Spirulina - Zahra Hamedifard, Alireza Milajerdi, Željko Reiner, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Fariba Kolahdooz, Zatollah AsemiThe effects of spirulina on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsPhytother Res.(2019 Oct)
  27. Cocoa Extract - Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri CCocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensivesHypertension.(2005 Aug)
  28. Spirulina - Elias E Mazokopakis, Maria G Papadomanolaki, Andreas A Fousteris, Dimitrios A Kotsiris, Ioannis M Lampadakis, Emmanuel S GanotakisThe hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis) supplementation in a Cretan population with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a prospective pilot studyAnn Gastroenterol.(2014)
  29. Chromium - I Kato, J H Vogelman, V Dilman, J Karkoszka, K Frenkel, N P Durr, N Orentreich, P TonioloEffect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracilEur J Epidemiol.(1998 Sep)
  30. Vitamin C - Mason SA, Della Gatta PA, Snow RJ, Russell AP, Wadley GDAscorbic acid supplementation improves skeletal muscle oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized controlled studyFree Radic Biol Med.(2016 Apr)
  31. Olive Leaf Extract - Gimeno E, de la Torre-Carbot K, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Castellote AI, Fitó M, de la Torre R, Covas MI, López-Sabater MCChanges in the phenolic content of low density lipoprotein after olive oil consumption in men. A randomized crossover controlled trialBr J Nutr.(2007 Dec)
  32. 16:8 Intermittent Fasting - Kelsey Gabel, Kristin K Hoddy, Nicole Haggerty, Jeehee Song, Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Satchidananda Panda, Krista A VaradyEffects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot studyNutr Healthy Aging.(2018 Jun 15)
  33. Green Tea Extract - Stendell-Hollis NR, Thomson CA, Thompson PA, Bea JW, Cussler EC, Hakim IAGreen tea improves metabolic biomarkers, not weight or body composition: a pilot study in overweight breast cancer survivorsJ Hum Nutr Diet.(2010 Dec)
  34. Garlic - Ried K, Toben C, Fakler PEffect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysisNutr Rev.(2013 May)
  35. Ashwagandha - Auddy, B, et alA Standardized Withania Somnifera Extract Significantly Reduces Stress-Related Parameters in Chronically Stressed Humans: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled StudyJ Am Nut Assn.()
  36. Cocoa Extract - Wan Y, Vinson JA, Etherton TD, Proch J, Lazarus SA, Kris-Etherton PMEffects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humansAm J Clin Nutr.(2001 Nov)
  37. Vegan Diet - Hana Kahleova, James McCann, Jihad Alwarith, Emilie Rembert, Andrea Tura, Richard Holubkov, Neal D BarnardA plant-based diet in overweight adults in a 16-week randomized clinical trial: The role of dietary acid loadClin Nutr ESPEN.(2021 Aug)
  38. Spirulina - Reihaneh Zeinalian, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Atefeh Shariat, Maryam Saghafi-AslThe effects of Spirulina Platensis on anthropometric indices, appetite, lipid profile and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in obese individuals: a randomized double blinded placebo controlled trialBMC Complement Altern Med.(2017 Apr 21)
  39. Coenzyme Q10 - Gholami M, Zarei P, Sadeghi Sedeh B, Rafiei F, Khosrowbeygi AEffects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on serum values of adiponectin, leptin, 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde in women with type 2 diabetesGynecol Endocrinol.(2018 Dec)
  40. Vitamin E - Roberts LJ 2nd, Oates JA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Meador BP, Gross MD, Shyr Y, Morrow JDThe relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humansFree Radic Biol Med.(2007 Nov 15)
  41. Lactobacillus Reuteri - Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Parent M, Prakash SCholesterol-lowering efficacy of a microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurt formulation in hypercholesterolaemic adultsBr J Nutr.(2012 May)
  42. Kefir - GÖLÜNÜK, S et alEffects of traditional fermented beverages on some blood parameters in aerobic exercises.Biomedical Research.()
  43. Chromium - Sharma S, Agrawal RP, Choudhary M, Jain S, Goyal S, Agarwal VBeneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glucose, HbA1C and lipid variables in individuals with newly onset type-2 diabetesJ Trace Elem Med Biol.(2011 Jul)
  44. Astaxanthin - Saito M, Yoshida K, Saito W, Fujiya A, Ohgami K, Kitaichi N, Tsukahara H, Ishida S, Ohno SAstaxanthin increases choroidal blood flow velocityGraefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.(2012 Feb)
  45. Curcumin - Panahi Y, Khalili N, Sahebi E, Namazi S, Reiner Ž, Majeed M, Sahebkar ACurcuminoids modify lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trialComplement Ther Med.(2017 Aug)
  46. Cocoa Extract - Lívia de Paula Nogueira, Marcela Paranhos Knibel, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Antonio Felipe SanjulianiConsumption of high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function in individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weightInt J Hypertens.(2012)
  47. Chromium - Ghosh D, Bhattacharya B, Mukherjee B, Manna B, Sinha M, Chowdhury J, Chowdhury SRole of chromium supplementation in Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitusJ Nutr Biochem.(2002 Nov)
  48. Psyllium - de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Smith GC, Cameron-Smith D, Wall CR, Cutfield WSPsyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trialPLoS One.(2012)
  49. Saffron - Milajerdi A, Jazayeri S, Hashemzadeh N, Shirzadi E, Derakhshan Z, Djazayeri A, Akhondzadeh SThe effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) hydroalcoholic extract on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A triple-blinded randomized clinical trialJ Res Med Sci.(2018 Feb 20)
  50. Royal Jelly - Georgiev DB, Metka M, Huber JC, Goudev AR, Manassiev NEffects of an herbal medication containing bee products on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk markers: results of a pilot open-uncontrolled trialMedGenMed.(2004 Dec 16)
  51. L-Carnitine - Joanna J Samulak, Angelika K Sawicka, Emilia Samborowska, Robert A OlekPlasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide following Cessation of L-carnitine Supplementation in Healthy Aged WomenNutrients.(2019 Jun 13)
  52. Fish Oil - Alison M Hill, Jonathan D Buckley, Karen J Murphy, and Peter RC HoweCombining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factorsThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.()
  53. Curcumin - Na LX, Li Y, Pan HZ, Zhou XL, Sun DJ, Meng M, Li XX, Sun CHCurcuminoids exert glucose-lowering effect in type 2 diabetes by decreasing serum free fatty acids: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trialMol Nutr Food Res.(2013 Sep)
  54. Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Colakoglu S, Colakoglu M, Taneli F, Cetinoz F, Turkmen MCumulative effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on endurance development, body composition, serum leptin and insulin levelsJ Sports Med Phys Fitness.(2006 Dec)
  55. Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Kelly JJ, Lawson JA, Campbell LV, Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Whitworth JA, O'Sullivan AJEffects of nicotinic acid on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in healthy subjectsJ Hum Hypertens.(2000 Sep)
  56. PQQ - Harris CB, Chowanadisai W, Mishchuk DO, Satre MA, Slupsky CM, Rucker RBDietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjectsJ Nutr Biochem.(2013 Dec)
  57. Fish Oil - Maki KC, Lawless AL, Kelley KM, Dicklin MR, Kaden VN, Schild AL, Rains TM, Marshall JWEffects of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters on fasting lipid profile in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemiaJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2011 Apr)
  58. Theaflavins - Trautwein EA, Du Y, Meynen E, Yan X, Wen Y, Wang H, Molhuizen HOPurified black tea theaflavins and theaflavins/catechin supplements did not affect serum lipids in healthy individuals with mildly to moderately elevated cholesterol concentrationsEur J Nutr.(2010 Feb)
  59. Vanadium - Jacques-Camarena O, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, López-Madrueño JF, Medina-Santillán REffect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose toleranceAnn Nutr Metab.(2008)
  60. Betaine - Olthof MR, van Vliet T, Verhoef P, Zock PL, Katan MBEffect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humansPLoS Med.(2005 May)
  61. Reishi - Chu TT, Benzie IF, Lam CW, Fok BS, Lee KK, Tomlinson BStudy of potential cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi): results of a controlled human intervention trialBr J Nutr.(2012 Apr)
  62. Ketogenic Diet - Partsalaki I, Karvela A, Spiliotis BEMetabolic impact of a ketogenic diet compared to a hypocaloric diet in obese children and adolescentsJ Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.(2012)
  63. Red Clover Extract - Clifton-Bligh PB, Baber RJ, Fulcher GR, Nery ML, Moreton TThe effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolismMenopause.(2001 Jul-Aug)
  64. Curcumin - Akazawa N, Choi Y, Miyaki A, Tanabe Y, Sugawara J, Ajisaka R, Maeda SCurcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal womenNutr Res.(2012 Oct)
  65. OMAD And 20:4 Intermittent Fasting - Sutton EF, Beyl R, Early KS, Cefalu WT, Ravussin E, Peterson CMEarly Time-Restricted Feeding Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress Even without Weight Loss in Men with PrediabetesCell Metab.(2018 Jun 5)
  66. Pycnogenol - Devaraj S, Vega-López S, Kaul N, Schönlau F, Rohdewald P, Jialal ISupplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profileLipids.(2002 Oct)
  67. Shilajit - Sharma P, Jha J, Shrinivas V, Dwivedi LK, Suresh P, Sinha MShilajit: evalution of its effects on blood chemistry of normal human subjectsAnc Sci Life.(2003 Oct)
  68. Curcumin - Panahi Y, Kianpour P, Mohtashami R, Jafari R, Simental-Mendía LE, Sahebkar ACurcumin Lowers Serum Lipids and Uric Acid in Subjects With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled TrialJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2016 Sep)
  69. Berberine - Derosa G, D'Angelo A, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, Maffioli PEffects of berberine on lipid profile in subjects with low cardiovascular riskExpert Opin Biol Ther.(2013 Apr)
  70. Ketogenic Diet - Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, DiPasquale C, Roti M, Pumerantz A, Kraemer WJComparison of a very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet on fasting lipids, LDL subclasses, insulin resistance, and postprandial lipemic responses in overweight womenJ Am Coll Nutr.(2004 Apr)
  71. Green Coffee Extract - Watanabe T, Arai Y, Mitsui Y, Kusaura T, Okawa W, Kajihara Y, Saito IThe blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertensionClin Exp Hypertens.(2006 Jul)
  72. Cocoa Extract - Di Renzo L, Rizzo M, Sarlo F, Colica C, Iacopino L, Domino E, Sergi D, De Lorenzo AEffects of dark chocolate in a population of normal weight obese women: a pilot studyEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2013 Aug)
  73. Ketogenic Diet - Yancy WS Jr, Westman EC, McDuffie JR, Grambow SC, Jeffreys AS, Bolton J, Chalecki A, Oddone EZA randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight lossArch Intern Med.(2010 Jan 25)
  74. Curcumin - Ferguson JJA, Wolska A, Remaley AT, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg MLBread enriched with phytosterols with or without curcumin modulates lipoprotein profiles in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trialFood Funct.(2019 May 22)
  75. Blueberry - Arpita Basu, Mei Du, Misti J Leyva, Karah Sanchez, Nancy M Betts, Mingyuan Wu, Christopher E Aston, Timothy J LyonsBlueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndromeJ Nutr.(2010 Sep)
  76. Garlic - Budoff MJ, Takasu J, Flores FR, Niihara Y, Lu B, Lau BH, Rosen RT, Amagase HInhibiting progression of coronary calcification using Aged Garlic Extract in patients receiving statin therapy: a preliminary studyPrev Med.(2004 Nov)
  77. Niacin (Vitamin B3) - AIM-HIGH Investigators, Boden WE, Probstfield JL, Anderson T, Chaitman BR, Desvignes-Nickens P, Koprowicz K, McBride R, Teo K, Weintraub WNiacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapyN Engl J Med.(2011 Dec 15)
  78. Paleolithic Diet - Barbara Frączek, Aleksandra Pięta, Adrian Burda, Paulina Mazur-Kurach, Florentyna TyrałaPaleolithic Diet-Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes?Nutrients.(2021 Mar 21)
  79. Vitamin C - Tousoulis D, Antoniades C, Vasiliadou C, Kourtellaris P, Koniari K, Marinou K, Charakida M, Ntarladimas I, Siasos G, Stefanadis CEffects of atorvastatin and vitamin C on forearm hyperaemic blood flow, asymmentrical dimethylarginine levels and the inflammatory process in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitusHeart.(2007 Feb)
  80. Fish Oil - Ciubotaru I, Lee YS, Wander RCDietary fish oil decreases C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRTJ Nutr Biochem.(2003 Sep)
  81. Tetradecyl Thioacetic Acid - Reidar J Pettersen, Mohamed Salem, Jon Skorve, Rune J Ulvik, Rolf K Berge, Jan Erik NordrehaugPharmacology and safety of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA): phase-1 studyJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol.(2008 Apr)
  82. Inositol - Gerli S, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, Di Renzo GCRandomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOSEur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.(2007 Sep-Oct)
  83. Coenzyme Q10 - Abdollahzad H, et alCoenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Are there any effects on cardiovascular risk factors?Eur J Integr Med..()
  84. L-Carnitine - Aida Malek Mahdavi, Reza Mahdavi, Sousan Kolahi, Maryam Zemestani, Amir-Mansour VatankhahL-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritisNutr Res.(2015 Aug)
  85. Coenzyme Q10 - Singh RB, Neki NS, Kartikey K, Pella D, Kumar A, Niaz MA, Thakur ASEffect of coenzyme Q10 on risk of atherosclerosis in patients with recent myocardial infarctionMol Cell Biochem.(2003 Apr)
  86. Ephedrine - Bogacka I, Gettys TW, de Jonge L, Nguyen T, Smith JM, Xie H, Greenway F, Smith SRThe effect of beta-adrenergic and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma stimulation on target genes related to lipid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissueDiabetes Care.(2007 May)
  87. Quercetin - Talirevic E, Jelena SQuercetin in the treatment of dyslipidemiaMed Arh.(2012)
  88. Grape Seed Extract - Kar P, Laight D, Rooprai HK, Shaw KM, Cummings MEffects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivityDiabet Med.(2009 May)
  89. Pyruvate - Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Lonchar KD, Arch JEPlasma lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic patients consuming a high-fat diet supplemented with pyruvate for 6 wkAm J Clin Nutr.(1992 Nov)
  90. Olive Leaf Extract - Weinbrenner T, Fitó M, de la Torre R, Saez GT, Rijken P, Tormos C, Coolen S, Albaladejo MF, Abanades S, Schroder H, Marrugat J, Covas MIOlive oils high in phenolic compounds modulate oxidative/antioxidative status in menJ Nutr.(2004 Sep)
  91. Saffron - Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Naheed Aryaeian, Naseh Pahlavani, Soudabeh Fallah, Nariman Moradi, Davoud Abbasi, Agha Fatemeh HosseiniEffects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialDiabetes Metab Syndr Obes.(2019 Oct 14)
  92. Policosanol - Castaño G, Más R, Fernández JC, Illnait J, Fernández L, Alvarez EEffects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary riskJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.(2001 Mar)
  93. Kefir - Alireza Ostadrahimi, Akbar Taghizadeh, Majid Mobasseri, Nazila Farrin, Laleh Payahoo, Zahra Beyramalipoor Gheshlaghi, Morteza VahedjabbariEffect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trialIran J Public Health.(2015 Feb)
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